Visible light-induced 3D bioprinting technologies














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Introduction. 3

Background. 3

Part 1. 3

Overview of tissue engineering in kidney failure. 3

Approach. 4

Cells. 4

Advancements. 5

Molecular/gene delivery. 5

Bioreactor strategy. 5

Challenges & future directions. 6

Part 2. 7

Conclusion. 7

Reference. 9




The human research and biological world is the ever-evolving world where we learn something new every day. AS the new CTO of RegenaGrowth tissue engineering ltd, I have been allocated with the disease process. The engineering department of this organization is under me, and certain things are needed to be done. This paper contains information on how to study kidney failure properly—further detailed information about the epidemiology, cellular source, and another cellular source. Further, the challenges and what can be the future of this study are also explained in this paper.


Kidney failure is one of the critical problems that arise in a human’s life. There is some significant research that has been done, like the stem cells study, which tells that stem cells can be transplanted into the patient’s body to regenerate the damaged kidney. Further regenerating the kidney can be effective from the growth factors (Kolla et al., 2021). This helps in reducing the overall inflammation in the kidney and thus reducing the chances of bioreactor conditions. The use of these processes can be helpful for research purposes and therefore is one of the essential things needed to be studied.

Part 1

Overview of tissue engineering in kidney failure

Kidney failure is one of the most chorionic kidney diseases that has a significant impact on the quality of a person’s life. Some significant complications are related to this; understanding the pathophysiology of CKD is important. In a human body, the rate of renal blood flow of approximately 400 ml/100g of tissue per minute is much higher than in the liver or in the brain. This makes the renal tissue highly exposed to the potentially harmful factors in the circulating agents. Further, glomerular filtration is dependent on relatively high intra- and trans glomerular pressure. The epidemiology of kidney failure states that the chances of this increase with age, and only four out of one lakh people will have a total renal failure that is kidney failure (Liu et al., 2021). One of the most promising and upcoming solutions to this is the process of tissue engineering, the processes of stem cells regeneration, growth factors. The use of biomaterials and bioreactor conditioning can also be helpful. Stem cell-regenerating is one of the most promising studies where a stem cell from a donor is used to regenerate the failed tissue. This is one of the primary studies conducted by various researchers worldwide.

Further, the use of the growth factor is one of the essential things that is needed to be done with the use of stem cell research. This helps in the process of regenerating the tissue cells. Further with the use of bioreactor conditioning is to control the environmental conditions and nutrias in concentrations during the bioprocess (Tetta et al., 2020). Tissue engineering bioreactors are designed to enable the application of multiple regulatory signals to accommodate replicates via modular design and provide biosensor or imaging compatibility. All these factors are responsible for the proper process of tissue regeneration.


The world has seen a rapid development of kidney diseases over the past two decades. The growing incidence has contributed to it immensely. Over 10% of the global population is affected by kidney failures. Apart from their ages, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension lead to the same. Dialysis and kidney transplants are the most effective technologies used to recover a patient (Song et al., 2020). But, the growing costs and the health issues have been significant barriers. The latest technologies make use of stem cells. Stem cell therapies in kidney regeneration from Vitro is the process that the company looks forward to implementing. The product developed by the company comes in the form of embryonic stem cell-based theory. 


The embryonic stem cells are also known as ESCs, pluripotent cells. They come with the unlimited potential of being differentiated. The kidney forms to be one of the most vital organs of the human body. Several cells form the organ. Various researches have been carried out to induce ESCs to develop complex kidney structures. 

The research group of the company has conducted various researches, which demonstrates the fact that the ESCs of mice can be integrated into the compartments of the kidneys. It suggests that the stem cells have the potential to repair a damaged kidney. When the ESCs were implanted into the mouse embryonic kidney culture, it resulted in the formation of tubules and proximal tubular cells. During the exposure of ESCs to particular factors or inducers, it resulted in the cells differentiating into kidney lineage cells in vitro. The process consists of inducing the ESCs of mice, which would differentiate into the progenitor cells of the kidneys, incorporating them into tubular epithelial (Uchimura et al., 2020). 

The most significant advantage of the embryonic stem cell theory is that such a theory is highly inflammatory. Utilizing it tends to reduce the degree of chronic inflammation in the human body. The level can be reduced to such low levels that it allows the kidney to be healed. In the absence of the stem cell theory, there exists a chance of significant levels of inflammation throughout the body. When the rate of inflammation is brought down to normal levels, it gives the body a chance to regenerate the tissue, which would help the damaged kidney to function normally. 


The stem cell theory can be applied across various organs of the human body. Scientists worldwide have been finding ways to supplement the kidney cells for their regeneration. As per the latest advancements that have been made, mesenchymal cells have been identified, which is the most effective stem cell, in regards to kidney regeneration. Transplanting such cells into the human body can help in the overall process by reducing inflammation. Stem cells, in the present day, find various users across the medical fields (Zhang et al., 2020). It has played an immense role in doing away with lifetime immunosuppressant drugs.

Molecular/gene delivery

People, who are suffering from kidney failure in an early stage, can be treated with the stem cell therapeutics process. This process can detach the damage of the kidney, and it will also help prevent future damage of renal functions. The stem cells have an excellent probability of curing the injury or damage in the kidney. In this way, ESC or embryonic stem cells therapy is the best Tissue Engineering process or product. Gene delivery is constructive in this process of kidney damage treatment. In this process, the foreign DNA has been relocated to the host of cells. The gene delivery in the ESC therapy inputs the genetic resources inside the cells and removes the unwanted and abnormal category of genes. It helps make the beneficial type of protein inside the affected part of the body. The gene delivery in the treatment process of kidney damage helps the body fight the disease consequences and many other kinds of diseases (Cao et al., 2021).

Bioreactor strategy 

Bioreactors have become vital types of equipment in cell therapy to treat kidney failure. Various kinds of bioreactors have been used in the development, differentiation, and growth of tissues. In stem cell therapy, the bioreactors ensure whether the cells will survive in the process of adequate delivery of the needed nutrients in the tissue engineering construct, which are three-dimensional. These bioreactors can also make the guidance to the structure, organization, and functions of the tissues in the applications process of chemicals (Kim et al., 2021)

Challenges & future directions 

The ESC or the embryonic stem cells therapy in the cell therapy process of kidney failure can face some challenges in the clinical submission. They are immune rejection in the cells of ESC delivered and the teratoma configuration through the remaining undifferentiated ESCs in the cell preparation process. There are also risks that the cells that have been put inside can be affected by many kinds of pathogens like some bacteria and viruses. The growth of cells can also be affected by this (Ko et al., 2021) 

Many medical experts have come up with solutions for these kinds of problems, like maintaining all the safety concerns as cell therapy is concerned with kidney failure. 

The patient’s efficiencies and deficiencies have also been checked before the therapy, and many of the recovery processes of the immune rejection has been introduced.   

In a condition of failing, kidney functions can occur for many reasons. However, in the treatment process, stem cell therapy has been proved as the best solution. The process of stem cells has an excellent capability of self-renewal if they are provided with a positive and supportive environment. Tissue engineering in the treatment process of kidney failure has brought many positive results. However, stopping the damage of kidneys will be the first way to cure.


Part 2

Problems with modern organ transplantation include a shortage of donor organs and immune rejection. Also, “stem cell tissue engineering is very laborious and time-consuming.” The downside of using growth factors is their high cost (Rahmati et al., 2021). In this research study, I have collected all the data and information from the website. In the Tissue engineering application, there have lot many disease problems which can be cured with the help of tissue engineering. In this research here I discussed the diseases with their path physiology, epidemiology, and the clinical which needs to be addressed by tissue engineering. In this research study, I have used many things for tissue engineering.

An effective tissue engineering method is to create a connected environment for “cells, scaffolds, and bioactive chemicals” to advance and upgrade tissue healing (Zheng et al., 2021). Ex vivo cellular scaffold structures can, in most cases, be displaced to the site of injury. Alternatively, damaged tissue can be repaired by providing scaffold-free cells or cell-free scaffolds. In tissue engineering, I have been used to restore articular cartilage. For the development of cartilage tissue engineering, chondrocytes (enlarged chondrocytes or differentiated MSCs) must be combined with biomaterials and biofactors. In this research, I have used the latest technologies to use stem cells. Stem cells therapies in kidney regeneration from the Vitro process, which the experts look forward to for improvement. This is the developed by the experts comes in from embryonic stem cell-based theory. Various researches demonstrated that ESC of mice could be integrated into the compartments of the kidneys (Ashammakhi et al., 2021). In this report, I suggest that stem cells have the potential to repair a damaged kidney. The most significant benefit to the embryonic stem cells theory is that such a theory is highly inflammatory.


Tissue engineering is the process of encouraging tissue repair as well as remodeling in terms of developing a biological replacement enabling transplantation inside the organism as well as replacing, repairing, protecting, or enhancing recovery. The cell is the basic structure and functioning unit of all organisms. A sort of structural support created and injected by a collection of cells seems to be the extracellular matrix/scaffold. This structure is traversed by a variety of transcription factors. Every signaling sets off a chain of actions that decide the cell nucleus’s existence. Engineers could alter cell signaling responses to restore damaged tissues and analyze cell signaling responses to produce new tissues. Numerous problems could be addressed by tissue sections, as well as the technique has a lot of potential for the future. Experts investigated the possibility of transferring immature tissue into the “grown new bone which might eventually be put into the patients.”   Renal patients will profit immensely in the nearish future from recovering new kidneys through their tissues. The experts were able to rebuild appropriate kidneys tissues after seeding the organ scaffolding using vascular endothelial cells. Whenever combined with some other medications, it also can regulate metabolically, regrow micronutrients, generate urination in vitro, as well as generate peeing in vivo in animals.



Ashammakhi, N., GhavamiNejad, A., Tutar, R., Fricker, A., Roy, I., Chatzistavrou, X., HoqueApu, E., Nguyen, K.L., Ahsan, T., Pountos, I. and Caterson, E.J., 2021. Highlights on advancing frontiers in tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews.

Cao, J.Y., Wang, B., Tang, T.T., Wen, Y., Li, Z.L., Feng, S.T., Wu, M., Liu, D., Yin, D., Ma, K.L. and Tang, R.N., 2021. Exosomal miR-125b-5p deriving from mesenchymal stem cells promotes tubular repair by suppressing p53 in ischemic acute kidney injury. Theranostics, 11(11), p.5248.

Ko, K.W., Park, S.Y., Lee, E.H., Yoo, Y.I., Kim, D.S., Kim, J.Y., Kwon, T.G., and Han, D.K., 2021. Integrated bioactive scaffold with polydeoxyribonucleotide and stem-cell-derived extracellular vesicles for kidney regeneration. ACS Nano, 15(4), pp.7575-7585.

Kim, K., Bou-Ghannam, S., Kameishi, S., Oka, M., Grainger, D.W. and Okano, T., 2021. Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell sheet therapy: A new frontier in drug delivery systems. Journal of Controlled Release, 330, pp.696-704.

Kolla, A.M., Jour, G. and Mehnert, J.M., 2021. Anuric Kidney Failure in a Patient With Metastatic Melanoma. JAMA oncology, 7(10), pp.1567-1568.

Liu, D., Cheng, F., Pan, S. and Liu, Z., 2020. Stem cells: a potential treatment option for kidney diseases. Stem cell research & therapy, 11(1), pp.1-20.

Rahmati, M., Mills, D.K., Urbanska, A.M., Saeb, M.R., Venugopal, J.R., Ramakrishna, S. and Mozafari, M., 2021. Electrospinning for tissue engineering applications. Progress in Materials Science, 117, p.100721.

Song, T., Eirin, A., Zhu, X., Zhao, Y., Krier, J.D., Tang, H., Jordan, K.L., Woollard, J.R., Taner, T., Lerman, A. and Lerman, L.O., 2020. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles induce regulatory t cells to ameliorate chronic kidney injury. Hypertension, 75(5), pp.1223-1232.

Tetta, C., Deregibus, M.C. and Camussi, G., 2020. Stem cells and stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in acute and chronic kidney diseases: Repair mechanisms. Annals of Translational Medicine, 8(8).

Uchimura, K., Wu, H., Yoshimura, Y., and Humphreys, B.D., 2020. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney organoids with improved collecting duct maturation and injury modeling. Cell Reports, 33(11), p.108514.

Zheng, Z., Eglin, D., Alini, M., Richards, G.R., Qin, L., and Lai, Y., 2021. Visible light-induced 3D bioprinting technologies and corresponding bio-ink materials for tissue engineering: A review. Engineering, 7(7), pp.966-978.

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