The Development Appraisal Report

Development Appraisal Report


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Executive Summary

Construction projects are frequently capital expensive, have a long payback time, and come with a slew of risks and unknown variables. Investing in construction projects becomes a significant difficulty as a result of this. This report explains a Development Appraisal proposed by an appraiser, keeping in mind the project’s Gross Development Value. It discussed a few stages of GDV to achieve a suitable appraisal. It has also discussed the various hypotheses that they can work on. It has also attempted to discuss the costings and several ways to fund the project. It also involved the risk factors and discussed how they could be managed and removed.


Gross Development Value

Gross development value, or GDV  in the real estate world, is a crucial evaluation term that all real estate entrepreneurs should know when putting up their projects and economic evaluations. they may estimate the gross development value of a property investment venture to get a close estimate of how much the land or real estate project plan will be worth once all development work is done. (Ng, K.K., 2020). The gross development value (GDV) is the projected value of a site or residential innovation in today’s market. Construction companies utilize GDV as one of the essential performance measures to showcase their properties’ capital and rental worth. The gross development value (or GDV) is computed,  the cost is established and then subtracted to arrive at an appropriate conclusion regarding the venture’s price. The land or property value is the consequence. The final amount of the finished work is the gross development value. The expense of constructing the site is not included in this calculation. The GDV may consist of the final project’s ultimate income, regardless of the type of site or construction. ( Li, X et al.,2020) This comprises money from real estate sales, rentals, ground rent, and car parks, among other things. The GDV is established by obtaining comparative data, which includes data from H.M. Land Registry, regional sales representatives, and current market evaluations.

Necessary expenditures, such as expert charges, assessor, site planning, construction costs; designer’s contingency; advertising, promotion, and legal; builders’ profit; cost of owning and vacant charges; and other expenses, are specified once the gross development value is calculated. A development assessment provides the company with all of the numbers (including the gross development value, development expenses, and predicted return), so you may enter talks with as much information as possible. You’ll know exactly how much they can offer owing to the data provided by a business evaluation.

The company can increase their Gross Development Value with the five stages:  Gross Development Value will estimate the budgets, cash flows, and much more should all be included in a thorough Development Appraisal. Land accounts for a significant amount of the project’s budget, and the nature of this transaction typically determine the development’s success. Developers can use a template provided by the U.K. government that has all the necessary information. The importance of finding a flexible and helpful finance partner who understands the complexities of cash flow management cannot be overstated. For their plan, a developer should create three different exit price models: optimal, standard, and ‘haircut.’ Cash-flow management is a specialized skill set that significantly influences the Gross Development Value’s profitability. The main goal is to finish the task on time to prevent paying extra interest. It’s also critical to lock in the site vendors to predictable payment terms that correspond to site progress. Since 2013, ‘Help To Buy’ has funded 36% of new house purchases in England, with 81 percent of those units going to first-time purchasers. Two-fifths of renters want to buy their own home in the next two years, presenting considerable prospects for homebuilders and developers. First-time buyer programs must qualify for ‘Help To Buy.’ This is especially important given that they will implement affordability limitations in 2021. Buyers have become significantly more knowledgeable in their study and decision processes at all levels. It’s not enough to guess what the target market wants and launch a multi-million-pound project based on guesswork. The quality of the inputs utilized determines the efficacy of any evaluation. Having a better grasp of the building is one area where they may derive value. (Ratcliffe et al., 2021) Planning will enable businesses to define total expenses better and, as a result, your overall Profit on Gross Development Value estimates, enabling the company to function and make alternative judgments. 

Assumptions Within Appraisal

An unusual assumption is used in an assessment project to assume that the anonymous report is correct. An extraordinary assumption is made concerning a particular task and claims to be accurate information that is undiscovered as of the issue date of the assignment outcomes. If this presumption turns out to be incorrect, it might impact the appraiser’s results and judgments. Only make extraordinary assumptions in circumstances when the data is unclear or questionable. This element would not be known, for example, if the engineer’s report at the time of the appraisal inspection said that the home is not structurally sound. Of course, in his report, he must reveal the remarkable assumption. According to the USPAP, an appraiser must make an “extraordinary assumption” regarding the worth of a property that might have influenced the allocation findings. they should communicate extraordinary assumptions explicitly and prominently. The declaration of an unusual hypothesis should be disclosed anywhere in the document where the value conclusion occurs, according to a solid rule of thumb. We don’t know what a fantastic assumption is, but we believe it to be true. If we discover that the unusual assumption is false, our value judgment may be influenced or altered as a result. All extraordinary beliefs must be explicitly and reported adequately so that targeted users understand that the valued opinion is contingent on the assumption being true (Archibong and Ogunba 2018). An appraiser isn’t required to view the home’s physical soundness and isn’t usually competent to do so. If we were to assess a property with a slight breach in the ground, we might make an astounding assumption. We may appraise a residence before knowing its worth by completing the unusual belief that it is structurally sound (or paying someone else to investigate). They require an appraiser to rely on information that is considered to be genuine but is unclear to some degree. A notable omission in the assessment report is the inability to disclose the unusual assumption. If this level of risk is unacceptable, the customer may want to hire an expert to do more research and analysis.

Discussion of Costs considered as part of the Development Appraisal

Appraisal expenses are a quality assurance fee that a firm pays to find problems in its products before distributing them to customers. they might include field testing and inspections in these expenditures. Companies pay assessment charges as part of the quality control process to guarantee that their goods and services satisfy client expectations. Appraisal costs may be a considerable expenditure for organizations that wish to maintain high consumer and regulatory satisfaction levels. Payments for secret shopper salary, manufacturing floor inspectors, and technical screening equipment are included in this category. Companies that spend a lot of money on assessments show concern about their image. One among three real estate valuation strategies is the cost approach; the other two are the income and comparable approaches.

The value of a property calculated using the cost approach equals the cost of land plus all building expenditures, minus depreciation. Any course provides the most accurate market value when a property is fresh new. The cost technique appraises real estate by estimating how much it would cost to build a copy of the property and focusing on using original materials. Rather than relying on comparable house prices in the region or a property’s capacity to create income, the cost approach technique considers how much it would cost today if it were demolished. Calculating depreciation on the older property is complicated to quantify.

Furthermore, if a comparable vacant property is not accessible, the value must be estimated, decreasing the assessment’s accuracy. Despite these disadvantages, the cost technique can be helpful and even necessary in some circumstances. The cost method is frequently used to evaluate properties worth that produce minimal revenue and are rarely sold. This method is most typically used to value assets such as libraries, colleges, and temples. The cost technique is seldom used in home assessments; instead, sales comparisons determine market value.

Residual Valuation


Under the Residual valuation method, the value of a property with development potential is determined by subtracting the cost of the development plus a profit for the developer from the value of the property after the story. The report is based on the analysis of the residual value method that is appropriate for development sites. This method is used to ascertain the outcomes, like the profits that will be valuable for the developer if the property price is fixed earlier. The value is specified on the assumption that the site value is the required outcome that needs to be considered. The residual method is complicated, especially for the development sites, as the process takes time and the valuation is done at a single point. For this, multiple ways are used to find the exact cost. Residual valuation helps the valuers to identify the appropriate method to get the precise value of the property. The valuer should also evaluate every issue that may arise while using the fairest method. The residual way mainly depends on the role of valuation, the development timing process, and the type of asset. The primary residual method is used for less complex purchases or at the earlier stage of development. they can use a basic residual approach to establish development phases and other issues of timing, as can some proprietary development phases and other matters of timing, as can some proprietary development appraisal software, but cash flow can more readily incorporate such as assumptions (Amadasun 2019). 

Many components of a development are not affected by the application chosen, but it is essential to consider how each input and output are generated carefully. Many of the information for the residual method will be determined using the market comparison approach. Valuers are in charge of dealing with the detailed inputs into the residual valuation model since no single solution applies to all situations. 

The primary inflows and costs to be considered in residual valuation are: 

  • A completed development’s value without adjusting for sales costs is the basis of its value. The gross development value is also used in IVS 410. Each of these terms represents an estimate of the contract price of the constructed property. Therefore, the price assumes the purchaser has included any prospective acquisition costs that might have reduced the purchase price. 
  • The net development value (NAV) of the development is the price of the development after-sale costs are deducted. 
  • It is associated with clearing, remediating, or preparing the site. 
  • Contingency cost associated with construction. 
  • The construction fees, costs, and planning fees are related to construction. 
  • Plans and levies are associated with the development. 
  • Financing for the development, including site acquisition. 
  • Other costs or inflows related to development and site costs will apply if land value does not remain residual. 


All the applications should be kept in mind while dealing with the residual value method. It is a complex method but can be helpful if appropriately applied. 


Funding Evaluation and different funding Schemes

There are different sources of getting funds, and evaluating each type of fund is essential to get the best source of funds. Some of the ways of funding has been listed in the report: 

  1. Commercial Banks: When looking for financing the major construction project, the first option they can assess for funding is commercial banks and loans. Choosing the option that is backed by security is best. The majority of the banks take a down payment of 10% according to the amount of loan and the security. This helps to take off some risk for both the banks and the investors. 
  2. Equity and Debentures: Acquiring funds from the market can also be one of the options. Listing the company in the stock market will give the investor a readily available source of funds, and the people investing will become the company’s partner. 
  3. Savings and Loan: Saving and loan associations are similar to commercial banks but more like union credits, in which the depositor and the borrower mutually hold interests. They also have a voting right which gives them the power to control the company (Zheng et al. 2019). The benefits of taking a loan through S&L Association are: One time closing that leads to fewer fees which are typical when borrowing is done from a large commercial bank, there is a guaranteed locked-in interest rate for the entire duration of the loan, monthly payment of interest rate make it very easy and convenient. 
  4. Mutual Saving Banks: Mutual saving bank is similar to an S&L, but this is member-controlled. All the parties associated with mutual saving banks invest their money in a common fund later on invested into mortgages, stock, bonds, and securities, with members sharing in the profits and losses. There are some risks in investing in mutual saving banks, but the advantages take a hand over the disadvantages. 
  5. Crowdsourcing: With the advent of development, numerous crowdsourcing options are available to fund the business or a construction project. It makes it easier for the borrowers to contact investors interested in investing in the project. 

There are many funding options available in the market, so if the investor wants bulk funding, they can consider any of the options listed above according to the project’s requirement. They should evaluate all the aspects of obtaining the particular sources, and they should consider the best choice. 


Analysis of Risk Involved (Sensitivity Analysis)


The involvement of risk can be analyzed in different ways; in this report, the method that has been chosen is Sensitivity Analysis. Analyzing the impact of the different values of a set of independent variables on a specific dependent variable is called a Sensitivity Analysis. Other methods are used to conduct sensitivity analysis. Some of them are Layout in excel, direct and indirect ways, tables, charts, and graphs. From biology to economics to engineering, they can apply sensitivity analysis to various fields (Anstey et al., 2017). When performed under specific conditions, a Financial Sensitivity Analysis or What-If simulation exercise is most commonly used by financial analysts as a means of predicting the outcome of particular activities. Economic sensitivity analysis is conducted within defined boundaries based on a set of independent (input) variables. This analysis is used to understand the effect of independent variables under some particular circumstances (Agyenim-Boateng 2021). For Example: If a financial analyst is interested in learning how a company’s networking capital affects its profit margin. The study will include all the variables that affect the firm’s profit margin, such as the cost of items sold, workers’ pay, managers’ wages, and so on. they will isolate these fixed and variable expenses in the study, and all potential outcomes will be recorded. Some of the primary advantages of using sensitivity analysis are: 

  • Sensitivity analysis boosts the credibility of any financial model by putting it through its paces over a wide range of scenarios. 
  • The analyst can be more flexible with the boundaries within which to assess the sensitivity of the dependent variables to the independent variables using Financial Sensitivity Analysis. For example, the financial model used to investigate the impact of a 5-point change in interest rates on bond prices differs from the economic models used to examine the effect of a 20-point rise in the interest rates. 
  • Sensitivity analysis aids in making well-informed decisions. Decision-makers use the model to determine how sensitive the output is to change in certain factors. As a result, the analyst can draw factual findings and make the best judgments possible. 

It is essential to consult sensitivity analysis to mitigate the risk associated with investing and choose the type of fund in which investment should be made. So, it is important to conduct sensitivity analysis to reach an accurate result. 



All the factors that are listed below are very important starting from Gross development value, assumptions, discussion of cost for development appraisal, funding evaluation, till risk involved. All the factors that can affect the funding decision should be taken into consideration. For creating a small site or a major one, residual valuation is important, but it is also associated with risk as the time period varies and the property or the site may also appreciate or depreciate; all these factors are ignored in Residual valuation. The funds that are to be chosen should also be analysed properly because all the source of funds also comes with a drawback of its own, so it’s better to make a proper analysis according to the requirement of the project. It is recommended to choose sensitivity analysis to get the overview of the entire project and the funding can be done but in equity and debentures according to the need of the company. All the factors affect the entire decision of the project so a careful analysis is important. 




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Ratcliffe, J., Stubbs, M., and Keeping, M., 2021. Urban planning and real estate development. Routledge.

Archibong, T.C. and Ogunba, O.A., 2018. A Study of Variances in Development Appraisal in Uyo (No. afres2018_121). African Real Estate Society (AfRES).


Anstey, E., Fletcher, C. and Walker, J., 2017. Staff appraisal and development. Taylor & Francis.

Agyenim-Boateng, E.O., 2021. Towards the development of performance appraisal system for VCC senior and junior staff: Towards the development of performance appraisal system for VCC senior and junior staff. Journal of Educational Management, 3, pp.128-143.

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