The Conceptual Framework Overview



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Evaluating a Questionnaire

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Evaluating a Questionnaire


The main objective of this project is to assess the given questionnaire, which is intended to evaluate hospital employees’ attitudes toward the safety of the patients. The author will take into account the information required and the content and wording of specific queries. In addition, the author will consider the question response forms, measurement level, and question sequence. When a questionnaire is appropriately designed and formatted, it allows the researcher to collect data about a specific phenomenon. According to Zikmund et al. (2013), well-designed surveys engage respondents visually attractive, resulting in correct and comprehensive responses. A strong questionnaire is succinct and avoids being repeated (Yaddanapudi & Yaddanapudi, 2019). The questions must also be presented in accurate, proper language, and simple for the participant to understand.

The Conceptual Framework

Patient safety may be traced back to the principle of first. Patient safety covers a broad range of medical procedures, including improper prescription, misdiagnosis, unnecessary treatments, and a variety of other mistakes that might result in medical injury to a patient (Alshyyab et al., 2018). Hospital staff work under pressure, and recent occurrences have shown how difficult it is to serve many patients while still endeavoring to operate securely and competently. From triage through to medical surgeries, hospital personnel must uphold their competence and adhere to the standards of operation that reflect their company’s patient safety environment and culture (Alshyyab et al., 2018). The current healthcare paradigm of referring patients to a wide range of experts poses a significant danger to patient safety and increases the chance of medical errors. The safety culture entails hospital staff’s attitudes toward patient safety as well as the standard protocols and support systems to maintain patient safety (Lavrakas et al., 2019). The current attitudes toward patient safety that hospital personnel has in light of the current operational tempo would be measured by the safety climate. 

Designing a Questionnaire

The survey should aim to be meaningful throughout and applicable to the current issue while emphasizing the research questions. Patient safety questions should be uncomplicated since every hospital employee should know what the phrase means. On the other hand, the questions should not be pushing in nature, nor should they presume that everyone understands everything equally. A hospital food service worker, for instance, might not comprehend why a patient had dietary limitations, but the principal care practitioner would, and the foodservice worker would be expected only to deliver meals that fit those limits. 

A questionnaire for mail form surveys would be prepared based on exhibit 15.1 and then updated for telephone surveys (Zikmund et al., 2013). The queries would be less complicated and more colloquial, with categories that are simple to understand. In a survey like this, it is essential that when employees are being surveyed that questions be targeted toward addressing concerns regarding attitude and providing scenarios for further information. 

Information Sought and Content

The questionnaire takes ten to fifteen minutes to complete and contains specific questions about safety problems and medical care errors. The survey is self-administered by the respondents, who must answer 52 fixed-alternative questions and one open-ended question. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture’s ultimate objective is to gather perspectives on patient care and detect medical treatment mistakes at the hospital where the respondent works (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2021). Work environment, senior management participation, communication, regularity of incidents, and patient safety assessment for the respondent’s work area are all elements in each survey component. 

Section 1: Your Area of Work

The respondent is asked to indicate their principal work area in this section of the survey, which is labelled as the unit, clinical area, or division where the tasks are done (Zikmund et al., 2013). In addition, this part inquires about the employee’s assessment of the degree of cohesion in their workplace (Bhandari, 2021). The scale used in this section is a nominal scale that classifies the response and specifies the participant’s job area. To rate the cohesiveness of the work area, an ordinal scale of strongly disagree, disagree, neither, agree, nor highly agree is used.

Section 2: Your Manager/Administrator

When a company asks explicit questions about a boss, supervisor, or the overall environment of a workplace, discretion is essential to ensure the respondent’s honesty (Malczan, 2019). This section of the questionnaire aims to determine whether respondents agree or disagree with the four questions that relate directly to a manager or overseer’s capability to make decisions about the safety of the work area. The participant will use an ordinal scale to answer the four queries, with responses ranging from strongly disagree, disagree, neither, agree, nor strongly agree (Zikmund et al., 2013). This section’s questions appear to be suggestive. Because the first two questions are framed positively, the participant may be tempted to respond to questions three and four in the same manner as the first two.

Section 3: Communication

In the medical field, effective communication enhances the patient’s care and safety while also increasing productivity. In Section 3, the subject is given six queries about the general communication and interactions in the work environment as it relates to incidents and hazards. An ordinal scale is utilized, with reactions ranging from never, seldom, occasionally, most of the time, and always (Shi et al., 2021). The questions, like Section 1, are perplexing because the answers are referred to as individuals, we, personnel, and the division.

Section 4: The Rate of Events Reported and Patient Safety Scale

The purpose of Section 4 is to gather data on the frequency of incidences conveyed in the subject’s work area. The participant will respond to the three questions using an ordinal scale ranging from never, seldom, occasionally, most of the time, and always. In addition, Section 5 contains one question that needs the respondent to react with a letter grade alternating from A to E, with A denoting excellent, B denoting very good, C denoting acceptable, D denoting bad, and E denoting failing (Zikmund et al., 2013). In this investigator’s view, both of these segments would obtain more facts if they were combined into a solitary frequency determination question, decreasing confusion and replication.

Section 5: Your Facility

The respondents are given eleven questions in this part on the safety culture at the hospital where they work. Up to this point, the study has only concentrated on the work area and not the medical center (Zikmund et al., 2013). This change ensues in the inquisitorial line without adequately defining the transition from work area to health facility as a whole. The participant will use an ordinal scale to answer the eleven questions, with responses stretching from strongly disagree, disagree, agree, nor highly agree. Notably, the questions are phrased negatively, which may contribute to response bias. The question sequence should be examined, questions should be worded in a non-leading way, and the section should be shortened.

Section 6: The Sum of Events Reported

The number of occurrences documented is sought in this section by asking only one question. A ratio scale is used to rate the responses to documented incidences over the course of a year (Zikmund et al., 2013). The way the question is worded is acceptable to this researcher, and the replies demonstrate diversity. Nevertheless, the accuracy of the response is highly reliant on the respondent’s recollection.

Section 7: Background Information and Your Comments

The participant is required to submit background information in Section 7 to aid in assessing the data gathered. The questions in this part have a theoretical level of measurement (Bhandari, 2021). The participant can choose from a list of multiple-choice answers that can be labeled. Questions one, two, and three might be perplexing, as they do not establish variety in replies (Zikmund et al., 2013). Question 4 may be mistaken with Section 1’s first question. The last question in Section I is open-ended and invites the respondent’s feedback. There seems to be adequate room in the response section for the participant to write further comments about patient safety, medical errors, or other events that may have taken place. 


The main aim of this research was the evaluation of the given questionnaire/survey, which was intended to evaluate hospital personnel’s attitudes toward patient safety. The researcher took into account the information sought as well as the contents and wording of queries. The researcher also looked at the interrogation response forms, the degree of assessment, and the order of the questions.





Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2021). SOPS Hospital Survey. https://www.ahrq .gov.

Alshyyab, M. A., Fitzgerald, G., Dingle, K., Ting, J., Bowman, P., Kinnear, F. B., & Borkoles, E. (2018). Developing a conceptual framework for patient safety culture in emergency department: A review of the literature. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 34(1), 42–55

Bhandari, P. (2021). Levels of measurement: Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio. https://www. nal %2C%20ordinal%2C%20interval%2C%20and%20ratio%20data%20%20,of%20interval %20scales%20%203%20more%20rows%20

Lavrakas, P. J., Traugott, M. W., Kennedy, C., Holbrook, A. L., Leeuw, E. D. d., & West, B. T. (2019). Experimental Methods in Survey Research: Techniques That Combine Random Sampling with Random Assignment. Wiley.

Malczan, N. (2019). Are employee engagement surveys really confidential?. news/are-employee-engagement-surveys-really-confidential-flaws-and-can-you-get-fired

Shi, R., Marin-Nevarez, P., Hasty, B., Roman-Micek, T., Hirx, S., Anderson, T., Schmiederer, I., Fanning, R., Goldhaber-Fiebert, S., Austin, N., & Lau, J. N. (2021). Operating room in Situ Interprofessional Simulation for improving communication and teamwork. Journal of Surgical Research, 260, 237-244.

Yaddanapudi, S., & Yaddanapudi, L. (2019). How to design a questionnaire. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 63(5), 335-337.

Zikmund, W., Babin, B. J., Carr, J., & Griffin, M. (2013). Business Research Methods (9th ed.). Cengage Learning.


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