Solutions-Oriented Intervention Models for African American Mental Health

Client Intervention Plan


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When it comes to assisting individuals in making the best professional decisions at various phases of their lives, career counselling encompasses a wide range of issues and theoretical and practical frameworks. A counsellor’s assessment of a client’s worldview, family history, personal preferences, and talents is necessary to develop a practical intervention approach and resolve the client’s issue (Gilstrap, 2021). This article analyzes the building of Marcus Thomas’ genogram, the interpretation of his worldview, the application of theory, the conceptualization of clients, the discussion of interventions, and the description of cultural difficulties in a thorough case study.

Client Data

Name: Marcus Thomas                                                Age/D.O. B: 15 years old

Gender: Male                                                              Ethnicity: Black American

Address: Marble Falls, Texas,                         Telephone Number:

Source of Referral: Juvenile Probation Officer

            Presenting Problem

From the case study, Marcus Thomas is a high school student who looks pretty problematic and usually gets involved in several evil deeds, either with his fellow boys or personally. The referral source states that Marcus Thomas has got himself in several problems, some at school and some at home. Marcus had already been charged with absenteeism and involvement in a school fight before this episode. As a minor, this will be his third appearance in juvenile court. He’s been arrested and detained twice previously, and both times he was sentenced to probation. When he and three other adolescents were apprehended while robbing a convenience store in Marble Falls, he was on probation at the time. Marcus is still being held in jail as he awaits his court appearance and the result of the juvenile judge’s decision. Before Marcus’s hearing, the worker is responsible for preparing a pre-hearing report, including suggestions for the court to consider.

The juvenile probation officer must submit the pre-hearing report no later than 72 hours before the planned hearing date to provide ample court time to assess the case before the scheduled hearing date. To give an appropriate evaluation of the problem, they must first gather important information about the client’s general functioning. After reviewing past situations, a worker determined that interviewing parents and obtaining information about their children’s schools was necessary. It was decided that the worker would collaborate with the other boys’ probation officers to study the contacts and general peer relationships that existed among the offenders in the group (Murti, 2021). When Marcus’s case is reviewed, the worker is responsible for recommending ways to remedy Marcus’s situation to the court, part of the review process.


During the first interview, it will be necessary to review the candidate’s academic accomplishments to determine their degree of skill development. Because of the client’s more excellent grasp of the issue behind her professional decision in private sessions, an accurate assessment of her worldview will be possible (Johnson, 2021). The client would have to share her thoughts about medicine as a profession with the counsellor.

Other probation officials have reviewed Marcus’s case, and it seems that Marcus and his three companions have created a criminal group. This gang appears to be made up of many different persons who do not appear to be connected to the current investigation. Three out of the four boys have had a history of tardiness

s, academic difficulties, delinquency, and other forms of problem conduct. The guys don’t seem to have many pals outside of their small group of acquaintances. In addition, the other three males, like Marcus, have refused to speak with probation authorities about their probation restrictions, despite being asked to do so. To shield one another from danger, they may have sworn a “vow of silence.” They are all in their late teens or early twenties at the interview. Aside from that, two of the other males had already fulfilled their probationary periods. To better grasp Marcus’s parents’ viewpoint, the worker did a combined interview with both of them to increase Marcus’s chance of answering the interview questions. After being released from incarceration, Marcus was scheduled for this interview as soon as available.

Problem Solving Ability

The theory of social learning, also known as the learning theory of career counselling, is the solution for individuals who desire to understand the different social factors that impact job choice. It was initially suggested by Krumboltz, Mitchell, and Gelatt in the 1970s and then extended by Krumboltz and Mitchel in the mid-1980s. As per this viewpoint, a wide range of life events and experiences significantly affect people’s professional choices and decisions (Matsuo & Nagata, 2020). Whenever it comes to picking a professional decision, many elements come into play, including familial and genetic tendencies, situational variables, academic performances, and skills enhancement.

The truancy problem was dealt with informally by school counsellors. Marcus was detained in a juvenile detention center for three weeks because he had been absent from school throughout that time. According to court documents, Marcus’s mother, a single parent, was utterly ignorant of her son’s absence from school. Although the school administration said that it had issued notifications to Marcus’ mother, they claimed that she had not responded. Despite Marcus’s denials, it is presumed that he removed the truancy warnings from the mailbox before his mother arrived home from work. Marcus’ truancy was discovered by a police officer who was patrolling the streets near his house in the middle of the day at the time. Because there have been so many break-ins recently, the office has boosted the number of patrols on the streets. Marcus was sentenced to four months of probation in court, with his school attendance and grades being watched by a probation officer as part of the probationary period. The worker only visited Marcus every two weeks and interacted with the school counsellor just once a week at this point. Marcus earned a “D” grade point average in school and a few disciplinary behaviour notations to his credit after his probationary time.

            Target System

For Marcus to be subjected to change in his behaviours, his parents and teachers are to be very close to him to listen to his needs and pleas. Marcus seems to be lacking parental guide as reflected from his deeds. The boys’ group he always gets along with should be brought together and advised on how they should live with society. Seemingly while at school, Marcus never associates well with his peers as he always fights them most of the time.

Because of the particular nature of the repercussions that a person may confront, not all of the aforementioned notions may apply to Marcus’ circumstance. In reality, nothing about the client’s surroundings, including the case study’s representation of the issue, modifies his desire to shift from bad to excellent. As a result of the lack of unusual environmental ramifications, ecological circumstances are irrelevant to the problem.


Potential sources must ensure that the change is fostered as planned to address the difference. Marcus is supposed to be guided by his parents and the teachers while at home and school. The parents are supposed to take complete control of their son because he is still young and should be moulded character-wise at the stage. The teachers at school too need to monitor the boy to ensure that she attends all the lessons as per the school timetable. Since Marcus has been convicted in the court of law before, he should be taken to juvenile cells for discipline. Marcus has been a threat to both the young and the old in society as he wrestles his peers and breaks into shops that belong to the elderly in the community; hence Marcus should be disciplined to evade the wrong character in him. When dealing with a varied group of individuals, it is anticipated that counsellors will have a high level of cultural sensitivity expertise. It’s possible that a lack of intercultural counselling expertise caused treatment failure. Because Marcus comes from a Latino background, prejudices may arise in the workplace, resulting in disparities in interpersonal relationships. To prevent this, a counsellor should get familiar with the distinctive traits of Latino culture. It may be challenging to persuade Marcus to participate in the interventions since Marcus had previously shown reluctance to commence therapy sessions and did not consider such meetings a respectable activity.

Problem Solving Analysis

To summarize, Marcus finds herself in a challenging situation due to various critical circumstances that influence her career-related issues when she decides to move from a terrible position to a good one. Krumboltz’s Learning Theory should be used to develop counselling solutions for clients in educational settings who are being challenged by the opinions of family members (Powers & Duys, 2021). Therapists must work across cultural boundaries and consider all relevant elements to reduce prejudice and help in problem resolution. They must also be flexible in their approach.

Since Marcus is a problematic student, I looked at the case and analyzed the matter as to why. I then came up with a situational way to solve the problem by considering the boy’s background and upbringing—the reasons as to why he opted to behave in such a manner at that young age. I then found out that Marcus lacked parental guidance and was not monitored by his parents. Hence he could decide on the issue by himself without involving his parents, but only his boy’s group that he went out with. Marcus was then allowed to get back home but under probation and good supervision.
















Gilstrap, D. (2021). Solutions-Oriented Intervention Models for African American Mental Health. In African Americans and Mental Health (pp. 105-114). Springer, Cham.

Johnson, J. (2021). Counsellors’ Perspective in Working with Clients with High Spirituality (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University).

Matsuo, M., & Nagata, M. (2020). A revised model of experiential learning with a debriefing checklist. International Journal of Training and Development24(2), 144-153.

Murti, L. (2021). Embodying Institutional Intersections: Juvenile School Educators as Agents of Survival. In Gender, Race, and Class in the Lives of Today’s Teachers (pp. 249-267). Springer, Cham.

Powers, J. J., & Duys, D. (2020). Toward Trauma‐Informed Career Counseling. The Career Development Quarterly68(2), 173-185.



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