Gross national income is the most widely used gauge of economic level. It is used as an indicator of the relative economic welfare of citizens in diverse countries. Gross national income is arrived at by summing up the domestic and foreign value-added alleged by a nation’s inhabitants exclusive of deductions for depreciation of the domestic capital stock. The gross domestic product determines the overall value for the ultimate utilization of the economic production output by the residents and non-residents. The difference between the gross national income and the gross national product is influenced by the number of income residents receive from a foreign country (Brezina, 2011).
Apart from measuring incomes, assessing a country’s standard health and education accomplishments is essential, mirroring core potentials. The health indicators include life expectancy, rate of malnutrition, death rate, and the basic birth rate. Life expectancy is the regular quantity of years newborn babies would be alive if exposed to the mortality threats existing in their group at the instant of their delivery. Malnutrition can be defined as the consumption of too little food, which cannot sustain the standard point of activity—high fertility rates are both a reason and an outcome of underdevelopment. The birth rate is therefore accounted as an indicator for underdevelopment. Literacy is the proportion of mature men and women stated or approximated to have the fundamental capability to read and write. Practically, literacy levels are usually lesser than the reported figures (Todaro & Smith, 2012)