Green Building in Hong Kong
Chapter One: Introduction
Green building is a concept that is used in various parts of the world where most of the construction and other institutions are opting from green aspects so that they can conserve the energy that is used in the various part of their operations. Therefore, the employment of the various green aspect in most parts of the operations helps the government the people to attain a better living standard as the quality of air is improved, thus attaining a better and longer healthy day. Based on the recent survey that was done in the various cities across central America, it was revealed that green building is a concept that is gaining popularity since it has played a focal point in ensuring that it is attaining sustainability in most of the cities and organizations across the globe. The central reason that is behind this popularity is that it has ensured that most of the cities are attaining energy efficiencies via the integration of the green technologies that are taking an active role in the regulation and reduction of carbon emissions, thus lowering the cost of the operational energy in the long-run effects.
With that objective attained in the mind of most construction and other professional minds, it is assumed that the implementation of green building and technology will continue to be implemented in Hong Kong. The first conceptualized of green building was back in the 1960s, and thus it remains right t argue that this concept of green building has been used in various aspects for a more extended period now. While the concept of arcology has been considered overly idealistic and remains hypothetical mainly, the notion of energy-efficient buildings became an appealing concept that allowed the contemporary green building movement to flourish during the ’70s. With the ’70s energy crisis – caused by the peaking of oil production across major industrial nations (United States, Canada, Germany, etc.) and embargoes from other producers – the Western world faced substantial petroleum shortages and elevated oil prices, generating a worldwide need to be more energy-efficient and eco-friendly.
Taking Hong Kong as the central case in this evaluation, it has remained revealed that the overcrowded buildings that have been experienced in the region have ensured that the organization is demanding sustainability, which is highly attained from green buildings. Most of the research that has been done in Hong Kong has stayed revealed that building is among the most elements that are consuming a higher proportion of energy, water, and electricity, which has managed to account for about 90% o the entire energy, water, and electricity that is consumed in the region. In that point of view, it remains suitable to argue that they are accounting for the more significant carbon dioxide that is atta8ined in the region, and thus there is a need for the central government to evaluate how to deal with these issues immediately if they want to achieve a zero-carbon city in the long-run. Kibert (2008) states that “the green structure development is the reaction of the development business to the natural and asset effects of the constructed climate.” Kozlowski (2003) characterizes a green structure as one “that utilizes a cautious coordinated plan system that limits energy use, expands sunshine, has a serious level of indoor air quality and warm solace, rations water, reuses materials and utilizations materials with reused content, limits site disturbances, and for the most part, gives a serious level of inhabitant solace.” Kwong (2004) contends that the benefits of green structure advancements incorporate lower support costs, lower utility expense, expanded efficiency related to better air quality and personal satisfaction factors, and expanded eminence (Zhang et al., 2018). Past investigations have likewise shown that the structure area has the most considerable potential for ozone-depleting substance emanations to decrease worldwide (Granada et al., 2009; UNEP, 2007).
Reasoning along that line of thinking, it’s indicative that the development of the cities is not only concerned with the notion of the cities are responsible for providing a better environment for its residents so that they can enjoy a better-quality environment and air conditions as they are busy building its economy. The challenges that are experienced from climate change is one of the issues that has played a focal point in ensuring that it is increasing the research and the professional concerns so that it can be dealt with effectively before it creates a substantial effect on the lives of people across the globe. Therefore, the transformation that is experienced in some of the cities is equally essential since it has taken a proactive role in ensuring that it is attaining a better living standard for its residents. Considering that line of thinking, this study is purposed to evaluate the research that is behind the concept of transformation among the Hong Kong cities, and this is technically connected with the notion known as local government and the HKGBCS.
In that regard, for this research to present some of the unique and logical aspects that are associated with this evaluation, there are some of the case studies that will be employed so that a clear cities transformation is presented while a logical conclusion is attained in this research. Ideally, the central city that will be used in this evaluation is the East and the west region of Hong Kong, which is logical as this will cover the major cities that have been highly urbanized for the past few decades. Based on the recent survey that was done by the green metropolitan agency, it was revealed that Hong Kong was among the top ten cities that are highly sustainable across the globe back in 2015. Therefore, it is expected that the city has continued to implement more sustainable features, specifically in the construction sectors, so that it can attain the zero-carbon policy vision it established back in 2010.
On the other hand, the report narrowed down to show that the East side of Hong Kong, which happen to cover a city like Vancouver, is among the first sustainable city in the world. In point of view, the selection of the cities that are found in the West and East of entire Hong Kong will ensure that it is presenting an apparent sustainable transformation that is experienced in Hong Kong as far as its green building is concerned. On the same line of thinking, it will present some of the fundamental and practical similarities that are behind the more extraordinary transformation that is experienced among the two cities to attain green building as far as its policymakers and bodies that are responsible for going green are under evaluation. Further, this research will ensure that a close linkage is attained on how the central government of the cities in the West and East is working with the green building agencies so that a reason for the difference is explicitly evaluated among the construction and other government institutions.
Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated cities globally, and Hong Kong is located in southeast Asia, with the tropical climate we have, humid and hot in summer. Climate change is one of the most urgent problems that scientists would like to reduce the effect on the environment. In this century, scientists and architects would like to provide a plan on the sustainability of buildings, which are the energy use, material use, and location of the site. Hong Kong Green Building Council offer a set of assessment (BEAM Plus) to building sustainability. Would it be the trend of Hong Kong building development? What government has to do with it, and what are the policy differences between before beam plus appear and after? Would there be any pricing difference if the building is certified as a green building? This dissertation aims to address the impact of the climate crisis on the future development of green buildings in Hong Kong.
According to the recent investigation that has been done on the subject matter, it has remained noted that there are some of the adopting of the BEAM Plus specifically in the building. Specifically, this concept is used in Hong Kong to ensure that they measure the notion of green building in Hong Kong. This is one of the private initiatives established in Hong Kong and was founded back in 1996. It has managed to develop into an internationally recognized suite of rating tools for green buildings, including the concept of New Building (N.B.), Existing buildings (E.B.), and many more as far as green buildings are concerned in Hong Kong. Therefore, the logical explanation behind this line of thinking is that BEAN Plus is one of the organizations associated with demolition, planning, designing, commissioning, and construction of new buildings projects, specifically in Hong Kong. In the same line of thinking, this notion is associated with the idea of renovation, alteration, and addition of buildings. Therefore, seeking to adopt the best practices such as going green is one of the best approaches that an organization can apply to ensure that they are overcoming the environmental crisis and affecting the new building while also improving environmental quality and user satisfaction.
Significance of the Study
Based on the evaluation of the green aspect in Hong Kong and other cities in the world, there is limited research that has been done on the urban transformation in light of sustainability. Therefore, this is well explained from the difference in the ranking that most of the cities are given by the green building agencies that happen to carry out the statistic on the same aspects. In that regard, it is thus evident that there is less focus that has been directed on the analysis of sustainable urban transformation. Having that in mind, this research will take a proactive role in filling the literature review gap that has existed in this field for many years. Further, this research will ensure that it is enlightening most of the researchers and professionals on directing their attention to further research considerations that have been presented by scholars who have attempted t make a logical discussion on the previous research on the same and related subject matter. Therefore, the research rationale that is behind this dissertation is the concept of presenting life in the dead light that has existed in the literature concerning sustainable urban transformation, specifically in Hong Kong, while other cities are kept constant.
Another aspect that is behind the importance of this evaluation is that it will shed light on the policymakers since they are the central aspect that is concerned with the green building plans that are undertaken in most cities. In reality, most of the previous research has opined that green building planners are the chief influence on how the cities are designed and constructed. Therefore, the presentation of the finding from this study will be of great importance to them. Also, it will allow them to have the concept and the practical aspect that is behind green building transformation taking reference from the most transformed and least transformed cities in the region. This information will allow them to understand the reasons and the challenges that are behind the more fabulous transformation that is experienced in other cities when compared to other cities. Therefore, the information that they gained on the transformation difference will allow them to make decisions and policies that are effective regarding the reason and the challenges that they have noticed. The logic that is behind this line of thinking is that cities tend to experience different weather and climate, a factor that affects the design and planning of buildings; therefore, having the information that is presenting this notion clearly will help most of the policymakers along with the government to have a different policy and regulation that are working for the different cities, so that Hong Kong can attain a uniform sustainable development.
The central aim of this study is to evaluate the sustainable transformation in Hong Kong cities focusing on the role of local government and green building council.
- To demonstrate the central role of Hong Kong and Vancouver City local government in facilitating sustainable urban development.
- To explain the role played by the green building council in attaining sustainable cities transformation in Hong Kong and Vancouver City.
Outline of the Study
This research will be divided into five main parts. The first part is the introduction, which offers the background information of the study topic, research problem, and the aim of the study. This part also will include the study objectives, which will be the deriving direction of the study. The second part is the literature review, which offers the past research that has been done on the evaluation of green buildings in Hong Kong. This part will present the previous empirical study that has been done on this line of thinking, thus allowing this research to make a logical conclusion on the research topic in conjunction with the result that is gained in this survey. The third part of this investigation is the methodology. This part will include the research method that is used in this survey. This part will also present the research design, sampling, data collection method, tools, and the instruments used in the collection of data in this survey. This part will also include the data analysis method that will be included, given that this is one of the best researches that will help cover the existing research gaps that have existed in the literature review for numerous years. The fourth part is the result and discussion, which will link the development gained in this survey and the previous research done on this research topic to make one of the logical conclusions on the study topic. The final part of this research is the conclusion, which will summarize these research findings, thus making logical recommendations on the importance of adopting and improving green building in Hong Kong as far as climate crisis is concerned.
Chapter Two: Literature Review
This chapter is purposed to present the previous research that has been done on the subject matter. This chapter will first present the overview of the sustainable cities that have been evaluated along with the concept that it is behind their success. The other part that will be presented in this evaluation is the analysis of the empirical review on the role of government in attaining sustainable transformation in its cities. This section will also present a theoretical aspect that is behind the sustainable transformation among the various cities in Hong Kong. Therefore, generally, this section will present the previous investigation that has been done on the subject so that it can play a critical role in making the linkage that is gained in this research in the discussion sech and previous scholars’ findings.
Sustainable Cities Overview
According to the study done by Loveday, Murray, & Yu (2018) in the evaluation of a research agenda for the retrofitting of residential buildings in China, they revealed most of the cities across the world are highly changing so that they can attain a sustainable environment for their residents. In the same discussion, the author of the article narrowed down to assert that it’s not the only sustainable environment but also attaining a better and resilient aspect that can accommodate the new changes that are experienced in modern cities. In reality, the cities are changing rapidly due to the increment of the technological change and high increment of population. In that regard, it is logical to argue that transformation in the light of sustainability is a notion that that is purposed to ensure that the cities and urban environment are adhering to the concept of social, economic, environmental, and political outcome for the long-term impact among the cities and its environs. Further, the same result was supported by another study that was carried out in Canada by Berardi & Jafarpur (2020) when they were making assessing the impact of climate change on building heating and cooling energy demand in Canada. Based on their evaluation, they narrowed it down in the discussion section to assert that the development of the cities towards sustainability was highly influenced by the pressure of the cities, which is influenced by an aspect like climate change, aging population, aging infrastructure, and many other factors. Therefore, due to the facts that the above mentioned and not mentioned factors are experienced in most of the modern cities, there is a need for the development of the policies and regulations that will take a crucial role in mitigating them, and thus this aspect of the sustainable transformation has been developed to carry out the above notion. In the same line of thinking, the political leaders have attained a concern of the same notion since the signing of the Paris Agreement that took place after COP-21, back in 2015. Therefore, this agreement has influenced most of the leaders to have immediate concern on the strategic mitigation solution, which will effectively curb the climate change that has been one of the biggest threats of the world.
Technically, given that most cities are concerned with the notion of mitigating the threats of climate change, most of the previous researchers have highlighted that there are some of the various approaches that can be employed in mitigating the issues in modern rapid developing societies. Some of the ways that have faced more concerns are the role of the central government and the green world-building councils, given that it has remained noted that they tend to have a more significant influence in attaining a sustainable city. In that point of view, the government leaders tend to make some of the logical policies that affect the construction and city plan, which means that they have the authority and the right to make green building becoming a living reality. They also have happened to make the linkage with the professional experts, who are working in the construction industries, as this will ensure that they are following the building and designing standards that are provided by the central government of Hong Kong. For that matter, the two cases that will be selected in this evaluation, which are from East and West, will be a central aspect that can be employed to showcase the sustainable transformation that has been experienced in Hong Kong, and thus allowing this research to attain its objectives as far as its aim is concerned.
Energy Saving Plan of Hong Kong
According to the “Hong Kong Energy Saving Plan report of 2015-2025+”, it has remained noted that the energy-saving policy of Hong Kong is concerned with driving energy-saving via a combination of education, regulatory means, social, and economic means specifically for building an inhabitant so that they can become highly energy efficient by 2025. Hong Kong will probably accomplish an energy force decrease focus by 40% by 2025, utilizing 2005 as the base. Hong Kong’s systems in energy-saving and decreases are: (I) government starting to lead the pack; (ii) further developing structure energy proficiency for both new and existing structures since structures burn through 90% of the city’s power use; (iii) exhorting organizations, foundations, and occupants to settle on effective energy decisions when they acquire electrical apparatuses and vehicles; and (iv) advancing energy-saving practices and way of life for individuals of Hong Kong (Sharma, 2018).
The Hong Kong government and Hong Kong Green Building Council (HKGBC) recognize that ‘green structure’ conspire (the act of making designs and cycles that are all the more earth dependable and asset proficient all through a structure’s life cycle) should be energy productive. When this report was delivered, around 900 structure projects in Hong Kong were either enlisted or guaranteed under the BEAM Plus appraisal (Building Environmental Assessment Method) or its previous framework. The BEAM Plus appraisal is Hong Kong’s driving drive to offer independent evaluations of the presentation of building maintainability. It was first settled in Hong Kong in 1996 and updated over the long haul, with the most recent being in 2012.
The BEAM Plus New Building evaluation plot incorporates six parts of a structure task, and BEAM Society Ltd. modifies the appraisal rules now and then as per nearby and prescribed global procedures: (I) Site angles; (ii) Energy use; (iii) Water use; (iv) Materials perspectives; (v) Indoor natural quality; and (vi) Innovations and augmentations. The BEAM Plus Interior appraisal plot was first presented in 2013, and the BEAM Plus Neighborhood evaluation conspire was first introduced in 2016. Hong Kong government has started to lead the pack by displaying a few new open structures and ventures, for example, (I) Zero Carbon Building (Z.C.B.) that is 45% more energy proficient than current standard structures since it runs on environmentally friendly power (RE) sources; (ii) T-Park which is simply the city’s initially supported slop treatment offices. It is a waste-to-energy plant. The surplus energy produced from this plant will be traded to the force lattice for outdoor use; and (iii) utilizing biogas from sewage treatment attempts to create power by Drainage Services Department in 2013 and making the main generator of hydropower plants by Water Services Department that same year. Hong Kong government required all current government structures with floor space of more than 10,000 m2 to do regular carbon review to follow the decrease of ozone harming substance emanation and to distinguish energy the executives’ openings and further develop energy proficiency of structures through an efficient audit of the energy burning-through gear frameworks in a structure (Geng et al., 2019).
Hong Kong Climate Plan
To make the literature on Hong Kong’s Climate Action Plan, it will be extracted from the report that was presented on the ‘Hong Kong’s Climate Action Plan 2030+’. The report was presented in the central government of Hong Kong back in 2017, which acted as the central response of the COP-21, which was attained basically as the Paris Agreement. Technically, the central aspect of the concept that was behind this line of thinking was the evaluation of the cots-benefits that Hong Kong was to receive from the plan. Some of the benefits that were under the evaluation were the attainment of a cleaner environment along with high-quality air. The subsequent benefits that were expected from this plan were the attainment of low-carbon transport and the creation of more leisure space. In the same plan, it was expected that Hong Kong would benefit from an efficient home and healthy lifestyle, which was expected to be green. Therefore, given that Hong Kong is a Special Administrative of China, it has ensured that it is operationalizing its city so that it can effectively operate as the Paris Agreement, which they signed back in 2015. This notion has ensured that the city is developing and attaining green benefits that were incorporated in its climate plane of 2030+. Therefore, the plan the country created has ensured that it is transparent so that it can effectively track and articulate the result that we gained from the analysis of the plan and its operations. The framework that they have created has allowed this country to effectively have a clear result as they have focused on transparency, together, and target, thus allowing every citizen working in close hand in attaining the decarbonization goals they have created in the plan. Technically, based on the information that was presented in the plan report, it was revealed that it was supposed to attain a 65-70% reduction of carbon by 2030, while they are using the 2005 plan as the baseline for the operations.
Further, there are other partnerships that were made by the central government of Hong Kong and private corporations so that they can effectively attain the same goals. Using that framework, Hong Kong has managed to mitigate climate change to a considerable percentage that can be admired by other countries in the world, such as Canada and the United States. The logic that is behind this point of view is that it has managed and is still planning to reduce greenhouse emissions to about less than 4.5 tonnes of carbon Dioxide by 2020, and it is expected to reduce it further lower in the near future. Therefore, the reduction of the use of coal in the future will play a focal point in allowing the city to have a sustainable environment along with high air quality that is vital for the residents of Hong Kong. Further, the report narrowed down to reveal that Hong Kong is expected to apply wider and larger RE in the near future due to t the fact that it has considered its concern on the mature commercially available technologies that it has in the public and private sectors. Therefore, the efforts that the central government of Hong Kong has made in encouraging people to effectively use RE has also played a focal point in creating togetherness in attaining zero carbon in Hong Kong as per the plan vision and mission.
West Greenest City Plan
The greenest city in the west of Hong Kong is Vancouver, and this research will use its plan and actions to make the similarities towards the cities that are found in the East of the study context. Therefore, to make the literature on this notion, it remains suitable to mention that it will be extracted from the city of Vancouver “Greenest City 202 Action Plan Report. Green City Action Plan is the report that was facilitated by Mayor Gregor Robertson’s greenest city Action Team back in 2009. According to the information that is presented in the report, it was revealed that most of the people who were over 35 000 across the globe played a focal point in the attainment of the plan, which included the residents, public organization, and staff from various institutions. The central ingredients that were evaluated in the greenest city Action plan include the partnership, vision, action, and leadership. The plan was divided into ten main unique goals that have played a focal point in ensuring that this city is attaining the best sustainable transformation across the cities in the world. Therefore, due to the development of this plan, it has remained revealed that Vancouver is one of the remarkable cities that is technically growing twice faster when compared to the traditional sectors by the installation of some of the key strategies such as capacity building, community economic development, greening working stations, training, and education. The above aspects have played a focal point in ensuring that the city is developing effectively and highly in modern society, a notion that has ensured that it is attaining green notion in the society more rapidly when compared to other cities. For the city to improve climate change, it has stayed revealed that this study happens to focus on the reduction of the community-based greenhouse gas emission by 33% that was by 2007 by focusing on four main strategies, support of the provisional climate, installation of green building support, climate adaptation plan formulation, and installation of RE systems in large scale in the neighborhoods. The city has ensured that all the buildings that are expected to be built in 2020 onwards have to be carbon neutral in their operations with the help of unique approaches such as education training programs, financing tools, and provision of incentives to green building capacity building, and regulations. There is another factor that Vancouver city has on the attainment of the green building aspect, which is the attainment of the zero wastes, which they are concerned with the notion of reduction of the solid waste going to landfills or incinerators by 50% from 2008 level. Vancouver targets to have all its residents live within a five-minute walk distance from a park, greenway, or other green space by 2020 and to plant 150,000 new trees by 2020. Vancouver’s plan to promote ‘Lighter Footprint’ is through reducing its residents’ ecological footprint by 33% over 2006 levels.
Chapter Three: Methodology
This chapter will present the context of the study, participants that were used in this evaluation, data collection method, instruments, and the data analysis method that was used in the evaluation of the data collected in the study. The other part that will be presented in this evaluation is the ethical considerations that were upheld in this survey.
Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of China that has a population of a total population of 7.482 million, according to the World Bank report, and it’s found in the continent of Asia. The country has a GDP of 346.6 billion based on the 2020 report. Based on the previous research that has been done on the subject matter, it has remained revealed that it has managed to be one of the green leaders that can be taken as an example in modern society. The country has been the leader of the green aspect, and it has managed to host some of the WGBC congresses for many years and a world-sustainable built environment back in 2017. The events that it is holding regarding green development is one of the aspects that shows that this country has taken a proactive role in ensuring that it was developing and accelerating green development across the countries that can be taken as an example for comparison. On the other hand, Vancouver is one of the bustling west coast seaports in British Colombia, and it is one of Canada’s densest, most ethnically diverse cities that the world has seen. This is one of the popular filming city locations, given that it is surrounded by various mountains along with thriving art theatre and music scenes. The city is an area of 114 km2, with an elevation of 2 m, with a total population of 675,218 based on the 2017 United Nations statistical report. The city is one of the most growing green cities, and it is actually ranked as the greenest city across the globe. The city has a total gross domestic product of $138.3 billion as per the 2016 report. The city has implemented some of the basic GCAP that are responsible for ensuring that it is attaining the best option for the green environment in the society. There are various local municipals that have been developed in the city so that they can ensure that there is a green building that is attained in the city based on the greenest city action plan so that the existing building is upgrading to the green aspect by 70% include waste, management recycling city rate by 2013. The central aim of Vancouver city is to attain more than 40% reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by the end of 2022.
The semi-structured interviews were conducted with 120 professional experts in the sustainable movements in the built and environmental field of Hong Kong and Vancouver city were used in the evaluation and analysis of the data collected in this study so that they can represent the leaders’ voice and foresee the direction of the green buildings’ sustainable development in the city. The sample size used in this investigation was selected with the help of simple random sampling techniques, which is the best recruitment approach that overcomes bias. Ideally, based on the above target population that was used in this evaluation, it was revealed that 10 of them came from Hong Kong, which was the East of the country is under the evaluation, while the remaining ten professionals that were used in this evaluation were selected from Vancouver city. Therefore, the selection of the equal chance of the total population was vital given that they ensured that there is no bias on the total population that was used in this study. In that regard, it is logical to argue that the bias was controlled by the random sampling recruitment approach and the selection of the equal participants that were selected from various sectors that have worked in the sustainable development movements.
3.2.1 Profile Information of Interview Experts
The target populations that were hired in this study had gained enough information regarding sustainable development in the context of green building. The personal information of experts. Is that they had gained masters in the field of construction. All of them have worked in the construction industry for more than ten years, which shows that they had gained enough experience in the industry as far as green building is concerned. They all received a minimum salary of HK$14,000 per month and a maximum of HK$30,000 per month.
This study obtained ethical clearance and participant invitations letter before the actual interview via online Google forms and WebLink produced by Survey Monkey to allow online responses. Semi-structured interviews were used in this investigation. They are in a position to elicit a deep and nuanced understanding of the professionals’ views regarding the impact of the climate crisis on the future development of green buildings in Hong Kong. The interview lasted 20-30 minutes where all interviews were transcribed before they were coded based on their familiar themes.
3.5 Study Pilot
The study pilot was conducted by three professors, senior lecturers, and a postgraduate researcher who had gained enough information and experience in research. All of the included individuals had both industry and research experience in green building. Therefore, after the study pilot, the questionnaire was finalized based on feedback from the pilot study.
3.6 Data Collection
The questionnaire was distributed to the target population via emails, and all of them were experts of green building sustainability who were elected from research publications and databases. Therefore, the suitability of the experts included in this survey was based on the knowledge and the understanding of green building technology and practices in the construction industry. Therefore, the questionnaire was emailed to the experts where Microsoft Word File was attached along with Web link for online responses. All the questionnaire was produced in English form only due to resources and time constraints. Therefore, there was not enough resource and time to create the different language of the online questionnaire questions. The data collection process was done over two months.
3.7 Data Analysis
The evaluation of the participants’ background information was necessary for this study. It played a focal point in ensuring that it signifies the reliability and credibility of the findings gained in this survey. The logical concept that is gained from that point of view is that that most of the experts that were used in this survey held positions in their organization. Additionally, all the experts that were included in this investigation had gained experience with activities that were associated with green building adoption prior, such as actual green building project implementations and participation in various types of meetings that are associated with green building technology installation. Further, it was noted that 90% of the total population that was included in this and more than five years’ experience in building projects and presentations in various construction industries. Therefore, the data collected in this survey included were included Microsoft and Excel. It will be presented in the tables, charts were used, and d other relevant graphical presentations on the opinions associated with the study objectives.
3.8 Ethical Considerations
The associated ethical considerations were observed in this survey. The first aspect considered in this thinking is that the participants were told prior to the study that this research is solely used for academic purposes, and the result will be shared t them, thus attaining sensitive information private and confidential. Therefore, their sensitive information will stay personal and intimate. There are no incentives offered for the participation in the survey given that this research is voluntary, and they had the right to withdraw from the study at any given point of the survey. Therefore, the total population included in this investigation were not engaged in any intervention, and thus there are no risks that they are exposed to. In that regard, this research will not further create risk minimization as they are expected to offer their opinion specifically on the impact of the climate crisis on the future development of green buildings in Hong Kong.
Chapter Four: Result
This part will present the result that was gained from the data collected from 20 experts of green building movement in Hong Kong and Vancouver city. Therefore, this result will be presented based on the two main objectives that were formulated in this research, acting as the guide of the comparative analysis of the study subject matter.
Table 188.8.131.52: Gender Distribution
Table 184.108.40.206 above shows the gender distribution of the total individuals used in the data collection of this research. Technically, reasoning along the information used in this study, it is indicated that those who were males were 16, accounting for 80% of the total population for both Hong Kong and Vancouver City. On the other hand, females and others accounted for 2 and 2, which represented 10% and 10% for Hong Kong and Vancouver city, respectively. There distribution of the total population in this survey shows high reliability and credibility given that most of the people that are engaged in the construction industry are men. Thus, they had gained higher experience on the concept of green building, which is vital for making a logical conclusion. The best aspect that is depicted from this evaluation is that both samples were taken for both cities, which illustrates an equal distribution of gender, which has accounted for both Vancouver and Hong Kong City.
4.1.2 Position in Your Organization
Table 220.127.116.11: Experts Position
Table 18.104.22.168 above shows the distribution of the experts that were included in this investigation. Ideally, based on the information tabulated in the pie chart above, it is clear from the illustration that most of the positions had higher positions, which means that they had gained more extraordinary experience and knowledge that was one of the inclusion criteria was considered in this survey. According to the information shown above, those who were C.E.O. in their organization were the highest, which accounted for 34% of the total population for both Hong Kong and Vancouver City. Those who were professors, project Manager, and senior managers accounted for 24%, 15%, and 24% of the total population included in the semi-structured interview for both Hong Kong and Vancouver City (Chan, Darko, & Ameyaw, 2017). This is vital in this survey given that most of the people used in this study have gained experience and knowledge related to the adoption of green building as far as future climate crisis is concerned.
Objective 1: To demonstrate the central role of Hong Kong and Vancouver city local government in facilitating sustainable urban development.
Based on the result that was gained from 20 experts that were involved in the semi-structured interview, it has remained noted that the central government of Hong Kong and Vancouver city have a more significant influence on the transformation of green sustainability in their cities. However, their employment and their role tend to differ, and that is why there is a difference in green sustainability among the two cities. Hong Kong is used in this evaluation to represent the East country, while Vancouver is used to representing West cities. Reasoning along with Hong Kong government, the ten experts that were included in the interview revealed that its government happens to prioritize its influence and facilitation on climate change, given that they revealed that it has stayed involved primarily in activities that happen to include saving energy, reduction of carbon emission, and energy saving. This is logical given that they narrowed down to assert that Hong Kong has come under the COP-21, which is under the Paris Agreement on green building and sustainable transformation, which means that it has to follow the aspect that is articulated by China given that it is a Special Administrative of China. Therefore, the activities that are followed by Hong Kong are technically regulated by the UNFCCC’s timetable, an aspect that has affected its rapid development of green technological advancement as compared to the city of Vancouver. On the other hand, when taking a light at Vancouver city, it is indicated from the result that is gained by the experts included in the study, it has managed to have a head start when it comes to climate readiness, given that it is one of the remarkable first city that implemented approached that can curb climate change taking its roots back in the 1990s. This has allowed the city to come up with a plan for 2020, which has four main ingredients with different unique strategies to deal with issues of green aspects in the city. A reasonable example that was given by the experts that were involved in the evaluation was the GCAP 2021, strategies to deal with carbon emission, greenhouse emission, and another green development aspect of the building. Ideally, based on that line of thinking, it is evident that all the buildings that are built-in Vancouver city as from 2020 must have zero operational carbon emission, a factor that has been evident in the city, thus ranking it as the greenest city in the world as per the 2020 World green Council report. This is also supported by the fact that it is the first city that has implemented the approach of RE in both commercial and private organizations in North America.
In the context of the role taken by the government in sustainable transformation, experts of Hong Kong revealed that the government is responsible for the appointment of the Secretary for the Environment so that they can chair committee so that they can play the role of postulating green building movements for example what happened back in 2013 along by ensuring that all building is built in line with the governmental green approach as postulated in the green building plan. Further, the central government of Hong Kong has the responsibility of ensuring that they are formulating the policy and regulation that can link the government and construction experts so that they construct houses that are green in the light of the building standards that they have formulated on the construction constitution appendix that is updated. In light of Vancouver city, it has remained noted from the population used in this evaluation that Vancouver city is one of the cities that has an up-to-date government, by ensuring that it is takings responsible immediate with the immediate strategy to solve issues of climate change. This is supported by the fact that the city has one of the most significant and faster-growing green economies, resilient and robust, in installing and implementation of the green-sustainable transformation mechanism. Therefore, the role that the government Vancouver City has taken has played a focal point in ensuring that it is growing faster in the green economy, which has attracted many individuals, a factor that has allowed this city to grow its GDP faster when compared to Hong Kong and other green cities across the world. This is the central government’s responsibility and role, which has facilitated the drastic development of the city, thus attaining greater GDP, which is just a small Area Square that is occupied by a diverse population. This is possible since the city is green, and the government has ensured that the residents are living in a more sustainable environment, along with higher air quality, thus improving their productivity and the perfect environment for leisure and accommodation.
However, even though the two cities under the comparison have attempted to attain a green aspect, there are some of the challenges that they are facing, and the mechanism that is postulated to solve the issues are significant for the success of the city in the future. In that light, considering the challenges ahead in Hong Kong, it has stayed noted that the only challenge that is expected in the future is the bureaucratic administration systems that are used currently in Hong Kong. Notably, the central government has adopted single-governance systems, which will allow Hong Kong to use the Paris Agreement, and thus stop being regulated by the China green sustainability approach and plan. For Vancouver City, the possible challenges that are expected in the future are the challenges f convincing its residents on the issues climate given that most of the people have grown knowing that they are the greenest city in the world. Therefore, for Vancouver City to deal with these issues, there is a need for the formulation of training and education awareness, which is also articulated in the Greenest City Action Plan 2020. Therefore, the issues of climate should be included in the education curriculum that is made compulsory so that people can understand the importance of maintaining green sustainability and how they can maintain the position they have achieved for many years.
Objective 2: To explain the role played by the green building council in attaining sustainable cities transformation in Hong Kong and Vancouver City.
For the green building council, Hong Kong is regulated by two agencies, which are the HKGBC and BEAM Society Limited. Therefore, the two agencies are the central bodies that are responsible for ensuring that they are formulating and controlling the notion of green sustainability transformation and development. In that point of view, considering their role and responsibility, it has remained noted that BEAM Society Limited is responsible for ensuring that it is enhancing the rating tools that are used in the green building, which happen to include the BEAM Plus from New Building to Neighborhood development, From BI to Existing Building. However, according to the information that was gained from the experts used in this survey, they asserted the most significant issues that Hong Kong is facing the Existing Building since over 90% of the building in the region are existing buildings, which were constructed without the following the above guidelines. Therefore, the attainment of the vision 2030 is an issue in this country as this is hard to achieve given that it has more existing buildings. In the context of the responsibility that the two bodies are taking in Hong Kong, it has remained revealed that they are taking a proactive role in the formulation of the critical policies that are vital on the subject matter. They are also ensuring that they are presenting the business that is associated with the notion of green building in the region. This is done via the concept that they are making an education campaign on the benefits and importance of green building that is vital for the residents of Hong Kong to understand that green building is one of the aspects that is vital for their development.
For Vancouver City, it has remained revealed that it is controlled and ruled by Canada GBC (CaGBC), which is the Canada Green Building Council, which is responsible for the promotion of the diverse building rate tools that are responsible for attaining continuous improvement and development of the certification for LEED v.4. based on the evaluation that was presented by the experts that were included in this evaluation, it has remained noted that the central aspect that this organization has been working with the Canada GBC (CaGBC) is three years, and it has shown significant improvement that is vital for the success of this organization. For the three years, it has been working with the city, and it has focused on green building and improvement, which is one of the aspects that is vital for the success of this organization when compared to the other cities across the globe. The government of this city is ensuring that it is attaining zero building for their own building stock, and the agency is ensuring that it is attaining net-zero carbon Building, which is in line with the Canada Standards. The most crucial information that was gained from the participants included in the interview, during these evaluations, they asserted that the agency is not responsible for the formulation of the policy, but they are taking the active role in ensuring that they are suggesting the policy that is worth development of the green notion in the city. Significantly, based on their evaluation and the work experience that they have gained while working with this boy, they revealed that Canada GBC (CaGBC) is capable of moving faster when compared to the government, and thus this makes it more realistic and more consulted when it comes to green building development aspects.
Chapter Five: Discussion
This chapter will present the discussion of the result in relation to the previous literature review that has been done on this topic. Therefore, the result that is gained in this survey will be related to the previous research so that if there is research that is congruent to the findings of this research will be acknowledged and vice versa.
Based on the result that is gained in this evaluation, it is indicated that Hong Kong has an ambitious government that is supporting the concept of green building while Vancouver city has a head start government that is highly committed to attaining a green building city. This is logical since the experts that were used in this evaluation revealed that the central government of both cities tends to have close collaboration in support of the green building agencies that they were operating in the respective cities. This result is supported by the study done by both the Green Building Report of Hong Kong and Vancouver City as articulated from their respective reports that they presented. A reasonable example that can support this aspect is the “Hong Kong Energy Saving Plan report of 2015-2025+” and “Greenest City 202 Action Plan Report for Hong Kong and Vancouver City, respectively. According to the information that is presented in the above reports, it is evident that is a shared vision for both countries to ensure that they are coming up with approaches that will boost and make more installation of green transformation so that they can achieve their goal and objective of green sustainability. It is evident from the evaluation that both governments have taken a proactive role in coming up with goals, objectives, and strategies for attaining zero carbon building standards, which is the central focus of this approach. However, based on the response that was gained from the chairman of the HKGBC, it was noted that administrative, bureaucratic systems that are used in Hong Kong still is the main challenges that are affecting the city to install green aspects in the city given that it is still a Special Administrative of China. Thus it is following the green guidelines of China instead of using the Paris Agreement CHO-21. Because of that fact, Hong Kong is still asking for support and assistance to ensure that they are growing effectively as a green city even though it has been ranked as the best growing green city for the past few years. In that regard, it is logical to argue that the efforts that the government has taken to support the notion of green sustainability transformation are great, and they must be acknowledged. Their assistance that they ask to install green aspects in the building industry is also helping the government to attain a win-win situation, which is vital as this has also been found to gain skills and knowledge that are vital for their development as far as green technological advancement is concerned.
Green building agencies are another aspect that was evaluated in this study in relation to the comparison of Hong Kong city and Vancouver City, which represent the East and West cities. According to the study finding, it was noted that there are two central bodies that rule and regulate green building in Hong Kong, and they are HKGBC and BEAM Society Limited. This research revealed that the two agencies are responsible for the regulation and suggestion of the policies that are installed by the central government since they are responsible for the different functions in green building. The BEAM Society Limited is responsible for the rating of the building stock in Hong Kong, and the experts revealed the main challenges that they face is the existing building since they happen to cover more than 90% f the total buildings in Hong Kong. Therefore, the installation of the modern green building standards is complicated as it is now experiencing modern development, which happens to account for only 10% of the total buildings that are in Hong Kong city. This result is supported by the HKGBC and BEAM Society Limited report of 2020, which showed that it is now that Hong Kong is attaining zero carbon operational building, which is in line with the Energy Conservation Plane of Hong Kong 2050+. On the other hand, Vancouver is governed by the Canada GBC (CaGBC), which is faster than the central government, and thus it is considered high when compared to other organizations in the city. It is responsible for suggesting the policy that needs to be installed in the region, and the government makes the policies. Considering that line of thinking, it is logical to argue that Hong Kong is one of the cities that has highly competitive aspects in ensuring that it is transforming its city into green buildings. The reason that is behind this line of thinking is that Hong Kong has attained a more extraordinary and spread government vision to the general public regarding capacity building. Training and working green environment importance. Hong Kong has taken an active role in ensuring that it is learning from international experts on how to effectively and quickly transform the city into a sustainable building so that it can reduce the costs that it is incurring in waste management and other effects that are gained from climate change. Technically, another logic that can be gained from this line of thinking is that the central government and the BEAM Society Limited and HKGBC leaders are closely collaborating so that they can effectively attain a sustainable building in the city and thus, thus making it more transformational when compared to other cities in the world. Therefore, the difference when compared to Vancouver city is that the movement on the transformation is technically very flat, which allowed them to effectively have ten strategies that are highly costly to achieve.
The central limitations that are associated with this study are time and financial support. Therefore, due to that fact, this research had to interview prominent leaders in the green building movement, and it was limited to only 20 experts and professionals, which makes this research limited to failure of interviewing the general public on the same aspects. However, this research is vital given that it has played a focal point in ensuring that it is offering empirical findings data on the making the comparison between green aspect building in East and West cities, which have highly competitive an ambitious goal in greening their cities as the central case study evaluation.
The change of the cities in modern society has been found to be very dynamic, which has allowed most of the city’s landscape to change significantly within a short time. In the evaluation of this study, it has remained noted that most of the cities tend to have some of the fundamental landscape issues, which make the greening aspect more effective and others to take some time in the transformation. However, the concept of going green is one of the aspects that tend to have a positive effect on the residents and the cities itself given that it will be in a position to effectively attract more tourists, which improve the GDP of the country as a tourist is one of the best businesses currently, and the tourists have focused on green nature of the city and places that they travel to. Therefore, Vancouver city and Hong Kong are among the best cities that can be used to illustrate the concept o transformation in green building. Therefore, since the cities that are used in this region are technically a mile apart and different cultures, it has been illustrated in this evaluation the two cities tend to have the same support that is required in greening, and thus this illustrates that there are some of the issues that need to be installed by other cities to ensure that they are greening their environment. Based on the evaluation that is used in this research, it has remained noted that government support is one of the best approaches that can be used to attain this aspect in modern society. On the other hand, the installation of the ambitious agencies that are articulating for green building is another aspect that is vital for attaining the best approach o green building in their respective cities. This research has shown that Vancouver city and Hong Kong tend to have the similar ambitious aspect that is required in attaining greening aspect, and this is one of the best approaches that should be followed by other cities to be in the position that the two cities have attained for the past few years. Both of the governments have taken an active lead in supporting the greening building, which they have used as one of the best approaches in ensuring that everybody is taking close support for the green building in their respective cities. However, Hong Kong, even though it is ranked 8thy, it has highly competitive approaches for transformation when compared to the approaches that are used in Vancouver city.