Developmental Psychology Identity Football

+ Developmental Psychology Identity Football, Bentota, Sri Lanka, 1998 (oil on canvas), © Andrew Macara / Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library Conceptions of the Self • The development of conceptions of self • Identity in adolescence Football, Bentota, Sri Lanka, 1998 (oil on canvas), © Andrew Macara / Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library Development of Conceptions of Self in Infancy By 18 to 20 months of age • Many children can look into a mirror and realize that the image they see there is themselves. By 2 years of age • Children exhibit embarrassment and shame • Self-assertive behavior and use of language also indicate selfawareness Early Childhood Self-Concept Based on interviews, Susan Harter (1999) constructed the following composite self description of a 3 to 4 year old (p. 37). “I’m three years old and I live in a big house with my mother and father and my brother Jason, and my sister, Lisa. I have blue eyes and a kitty that is orange and a television in my room. I know all of my ABC’s, listen: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, L, K, O, M, P, Q, X, Z. I can run real fast. I like pizza and I have a nice teacher at preschool. I can count to 10, want to hear me? I love my dog Skipper. … I’m not scared! I’m never scared! I’m always happy … I’m really strong, I can lift this chair, watch me!” Early Childhood Self-Concept Concrete and observable physical and psychological attributes (e.g., even “strong” means concrete act “lift chair”) Unrealistically positive (e.g., can not really recite ABC’ s) Even after several failures, preschoolers predict they will succeed on the next trial (Ruble et al., 1992). Childhood Self-Concept Based on interviews, Susan Harter (1999) constructed the following composite self description of an 8 to 11 year old (p. 48). “I’m pretty popular, at least with the girls. That’s because I’m nice to people and helpful and can keep secrets. Mostly I am nice to my friends, although if I get in a bad mood I sometimes say something that can be a little mean … At school, I’m feeling pretty smart in certain subjects like Language Arts and Social Studies …. But I’m feeling pretty dumb in Math and Science, especially when I see how well a lot of the other kids are doing. …” Childhood Self-Concept Social Comparison: comparing an aspect of ourselves to that aspect of others in order to evaluate ourselves. More abstracted traits (e.g., ‘popular’ b/c ‘nice’ and ‘ can keep secrets’). Opposing self-representations (e.g., ‘smart in language arts’ and ‘dumb in math’) Adolescent Self-Concept Susan Harter (1999) composite self description of 15 year old (p. 67). “What am I like as a person? You’re probably not going to understand. I’m complicated! With my really close friends, I am very tolerant, I mean I’m understanding and caring. With a group of friends I’m rowdier. I’m also usually friendly and cheerful but I can be pretty obnoxious and intolerant if I don’t like how they’re acting. I’d like to be friendly and tolerant all the time, that’s the kind of person I want to be, and I’m disappointed in myself when I’m not. At school, I’m serious, even studious every now and then, but on the other hand, I’m a goof-off too, because if you’ re too studious, you won’t be popular … I really don’t understand how I can switch so fast from being cheerful with my friends, then coming home and feeling anxious, and then getting frustrated and sarcastic with my parents. Which one is the real me?” Adolescent Self Concept Diagram used by Susan Harter (1999) to illustrate the multiple selves adolescents see in themselves. Adolescent Self-Concept Middle and High school students recognize but agonize over contradictions in their self-concepts. Personal Fable: A story we tell ourselves about the uniqueness of our own feelings, beliefs, and experiences. Adolescent personal fables often include the belief that bad things won’t happen to them, an Invincibility Fable (Elkind, 1967). Imaginary Audience: the belief that everyone else is focused on our appearance and behavior. Imaginary Audience & College Students College students asked to wear a Barry Manilow t-shirt and go into a room with other college Students completing a survey. How many noticed your t-shirt? Imaginary Audience & Spotlight Effect Spotlight Effect: We overestimate how much other people pay attention to how we appear and what we do (Gilovitch, Medvec, & Savitsky, 2000). Self-Concept into Adulthood Adolescents often have trouble reconciling multiple selves into a coherent self concept. As we get older, reconciling our different traits across circumstances becomes easier, because our self-concepts are less dependent on how others see us. Football, Bentota, Sri Lanka, 1998 (oil on canvas), © Andrew Macara / Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library Erikson’s Views: Identity versus Identity Confusion Adolescent or young adult either develops an identity or experiences one of several negative outcomes. • Identity confusion • Identity foreclosure • Negative identity Erikson’s Views Erikson argued for the importance of a psychosocial moratorium • A “time-out” during which one is not expected to take on adult roles and can pursue activities that lead to self-discovery • Is only possible in some cultures and only to the more privileged classes James Marcia & Iden/ty Forma/on Marcia (1980) designed a system for classifying adolescents’ iden8ty into 4 states within categories such as occupa8on, religious beliefs, poli8cal ideology, and sexuality. Iden/ty States Age adolescence Diffusion: no firm commitment to an iden8ty and no effort to figure it out Foreclosure: without exploring op8ons, adop8ng an iden8ty chosen by, or to appease, others. Moratorium: ac8vely exploring possible op8ons for an iden8ty, even though uncertain Achievement: a coherent sense of self based on previous considera8on and personal decisions. before crisis during & a;er crisis commitment no commitment Milestones of Iden/ty States Iden/ty Diffusion – Correlates Apathe8c, lack in8mate rela8onships, distant rela8onships from parents (Markstrom-Adams, 1992) Screws fall out all the /me. The world’s an imperfect place. Iden/ty Foreclosure – Correlates Authoritarian aJtudes, close rela8onships with parents as college students (Waterman, 1982). Iden/ty Moratorium – Correlates High self-esteem but high anxiety, change college majors (e.g., Waterman, 1982). Iden/ty Achievement – Correlates developed social skills, stronger emo8on regula8on, & higher achievement mo8va8on Cogni/ve Development & Iden/ty Adolescents with formal opera8ons more likely raise and resolve iden8ty issues (e.g., Boyes & Chandler, 1992; Berzonsky & Kuk, 2000) Drug Use & Iden/ty Early adolescent drug use undermines iden8ty development and leads to diffusion (Jones, 1992). College & Iden/ty Going to college fosters iden8ty moratorium (Munro & Adams, 1977) Paren/ng & Iden/ty Foreclosed iden8ty more common with authoritarian or overly-protec8ve parents (Berzonsky & Adams, 1999), diffused iden8ty more common with neglec8ng parents (Archer, 1994), and moratorium more common with authorita8ve (e.g., Grotevant & Cooper, 1986). Cultural Constraints & Iden/ty SES and historical factors (e.g., systemic racism) influence iden8ty developing by shaping the choices adolescents see as reasonably available (Bosma & Kunnen, 2001). Ethnic Identity Ethnic identity • Refers to individual’s sense of belonging to an ethnic group • Includes the degree to which children associate their thinking, perceptions, feelings, and behavior with membership in that ethnic group Education Images Group/Getty Images Football, Bentota, Sri Lanka, 1998 (oil on canvas), © Andrew Macara / Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library Components of Ethnic Identity in Childhood Ethnic identity compone nts Ethnic knowledge Ethnic selfidentification Ethnic constancy Ethnic-role behaviors Ethnic feelings and preferences Football, Bentota, Sri Lanka, 1998 (oil on canvas), © Andrew Macara / Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library Examples of Components of Ethnic Identity in Preschool and the Early School Years Self-Esteem Self Esteem is an overall evaluation of ourselves, it is part of our self concepts. Self-Esteem – Measurement Self Esteem – Early Childhood Two-year-olds seek their parents’ love and approval (Stipekl et al, 1992). When they get it, they feel competent and lovable. Children have lower selfesteem when parents condemn them for unacceptable behavior (e.g., bad kid), rather than condemning the specific behavior (Harter, 1999). Self Esteem – Later Childhood 7-year olds have global self-esteem, which becomes more differentiated as they get older (Marsh & Shavelson, 1985). During childhood, peers become a greater source of self-esteem than parents (Harter, 1999). Adolescence, Self-Esteem, & Gender Harter, 1999

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