Developmental Psychology Development

+ Developmental Psychology Development Specific to Adulthood Gender Schema Theory Gender Schema Theory builds on selfsocialization. Gender Schema are cognitive structures that organize our knowledge of gender and guide us to have certain expectations about what is important to observe and what is appropriate to imitate. Who Should? Who Should? Multiple Classification Social Identity Theory § Addresses the influence of group membership on people’s self-concepts and behavior with others. § Apparent through children’s affiliation with samegender peers • In-group assimilation: Process whereby individuals are socialized to conform to the group’s norms, demonstrating the characteristics that define the in-group • In-group bias: Tendency to evaluate individuals and characteristics of the in-group as superior to those of the outgroup Development in Adulthood? “[The idea of development after 20 years of age] does some violence to the idea of development. … [There is] no evidence indicating genuine developmental change in the adult’s basic world view, whether of the self, the social world, or the physical world. Indeed, what little evidence there is indicates that such changes do not take place (Bower, 1979, p. 432).” Defining Adulthood Young Adulthood: 20 to 40 years old Middle Adulthood: 40 to 60 years old Late Adulthood: 60 years old and older Adulthood & Development Does adulthood belong in the study of development? Does development even happen into adulthood? Is development in adulthood qualitatively different from childhood development, so it needs its own branch of psychology? Stage Theories of Adulthood Sensori-motor Pre-Operations Concrete Operations Formal Operations Piaget Sensori-motor Pre-Operations Concrete Operations Formal Operations Labouvie-Vief Pragmatic Sensori-motor Pre-Operations Concrete Operations Formal Operations Perry Multiplicity Dualist Relativism Commitment Sensori-motor Pre-Operations Concrete Operations Formal Operations Schaie Achieving Acquisitive Responsibility Reintegrative Perry’s Post-Formal: Dualism Dualistic Thinking (stage 1): One correct perspective. World-view of true vs. false, right vs. wrong, good vs. bad, and with me or against me. Are you frustrated when teachers answer questions with “it depends” or by introducing more questions rather than giving “the right answer.” Disequilibrium from Dualism Perry’s Post-Formal: Multiplicty Multiplicity (stage 2): You discover the importance of multiple perspectives and your own voice. Does it bother you that teachers disagree with each other? Do you just give each teacher their ‘right’ answer? Perry’s PostFormal: Relativism Relativism (stage 3): You discover that different perspectives yield different right answers. Each perspective is equally valid. Does Everybody Have Their Own Truth? Despite Relativism, We Must Choose Perry’s Post-Formal: Commitment Commitment (stage 4): Despite acknowledging the complexity of the world and multiple perspectives that have validity within their context, you become committed to some perspectives as more valid than others. Perry’s Post-Formal Stages freshman sophomore junior senior year in college percent of students 10 0 80 60 40 20 dualism multiplicity relativism commitment Baxter-Magolda (1992) 20 25 35 45 55 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 Intelligence (IQ) score Age (yr) Nonverbal scores decline with age Verbal scores are stable with age Verbal scores Nonverbal scores Intelligence, Processing, & Decline Intelligence & Expertise How can those losing (fluid) intelligence be those with the most responsibility? Adults compensate with selective optimization. We concentrate on developing select skills (crystallized intelligence) to compensate for losses in quick flexible thinking Self Concept – Mid-Life Crisis The majority of adults in mid-life describe it as a particularly rewarding time, with a focus on children and careers. 0 20 40 60 80 15 25 35 45 55 65+ Percent “satisfied” with life as a whole Age group (Inglehart, 1990) Responses to Aging Neugarten’s classic research on 70-year-olds’ responses to aging; she identified 4 types: Disintegrated & Disorganized: unhappy about aging, experience despair, often hospitalized in nursing homes. Passive-Dependent: lead lives full of fear (of illness, the future, their ability to cope). Often seek help even when it’s not needed. Defended: trying to ward off aging by acting younger (e.g., exercising vigorously). Integrated: accept becoming older, maintain sense of self-dignity, engage in life-review. Self Efficacy Self-Efficacy is our own assessments of how competent we are and how effectively we can handle situations. In some situations, self efficacy is a better predictor of performance than skills. Some people attribute their performance to factors under their personal control; they have a mastery orientation. The Effects of Choice and Enhanced Personal Responsibility for the Aged: A Field Experiment in an Institutional Setting Ellen Langer and Judith Rodin Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1976, 34(2) Research Question Objective helplessness as well as feelings of helplessness and hopelessness may contribute to psychological withdrawal, physical disease, and death. Objective control and feelings of mastery may contribute to physical health and personal efficacy. Study Design • Conducted in nursing home for generally upper income residents • Four floors in the home. • Two floors selected for study based on similarity in the residents’ physical and psychological health and prior socioeconomic status. Randomization? • Residents assigned to floors based on availability • Residents on two different floors exposed to different “treatments” Treatment: A Meeting on Lounge of Each Floor Both floors held meeting directed by the same staff member, who read from two different scripts Script 1: Responsibility-Induced Message [Treatment] Script 2: No Responsibility [Control] Treatment Group: Responsibility Message “Many of you don’t realize the influence you have over your own lives here. Take a minute to think of the decisions you can and should be making.” “You should be deciding how you want your rooms to be arranged—whether you want it to be as it is or whether you want the staff to help you rearrange the furniture. It’s your life and you can make of it whatever you want.” Treatment Group (continued) “If you are unsatisfied with anything here, you have the influence to change it. It’s your responsibility to make your complaints known, to tell us what you would like to change, to tell us what you would like.” Treatment Group (continued) “Also, I wanted to take this opportunity to give you each a present from the Arden House. The plants are yours to keep and take care of as you’d like.” [A box of small plants was passed around, and patients were given two decisions to make: first, whether or not they wanted a plant at all, and second, to choose which one they wanted. All residents did select a plant.] Treatment Group (continued) “One last thing, I wanted to tell you that we’re showing a movie two nights next week, Thursday and Friday. You should decide which night you’d like to go, if you choose to see it at all.” Control Group “I was surprised to learn that many of you don’t know about the things that are available to you; that many of you don’t realize all you’re allowed to do here.” “We want your rooms to be as nice as they can be, and we’ve tried to make them that way for you. We want you to be happy here.” Control Group “If you have any complaints or suggestions about anything, let a nurse know what they are. Let us know how we can best help you. You should feel that you have free access to anyone on the staff, and we will do the best we can to provide individualized attention and time for you.” Control Group “Also, I wanted to take this opportunity to give you each a present from the Arden House. The plants are yours to keep. The nurses will water and care for them for you.” [The nurse walked around with a box of plants and each patient was handed one.] Control Group “One last thing, I wanted to tell you that we’re showing a movie next week on Thursday and Friday. We’ll let you know later which day you’re scheduled to see it. Dependent Variables Pre-post within and between subjects design Questionnaire given to each subject one week before and three weeks after meetings” How much control do you have over your life? (0=none, 8=total) How happy are you? How active do you feel? Alertness rated by research assistant Dependent Variables • Nurses rated each resident on – Happiness – Alertness – Dependence – Sociability – Activity – Eating and Sleeping Habits • Nurses’ ratings blind (did not know whether resident was in treatment or control group) Dependent Variables • Residents could enter competition to guess number of jelly beans in a jar • Tenth day after treatment measured how far residents moved in their wheelchairs during one day Findings • 71% of control group residents more debilitated over 3-week study • 93% of treatment group showed improvement • Having personal control over one’s environment and taking care of a plant made subjects happier, healthier, more active

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