Applying Research Skills (Medication Errors)



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Assessment 2- Applying Research Skills (Medication Errors)






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Assessment 2- Applying Research Skills 

For many years, medication errors have been occurring, and tirelessly, the healthcare system has been working hard to ensure that medication errors are prevented in the future. Researchers and scholars have undertaken research to identify the causes of medication errors and develop proper solutions to the matter. Medication errors are a big issue because a straightforward mistake may result in the injury or, in worse cases, death of patients.

As a registered nurse, I have a high interest in understanding medication errors, and this is because I have made two medication errors in the past and seek to avoid such happenings in the future. I made a particular medicine mistake when I gave RhoGAM injection to an Rh-positive expectant lady. The contributing factor to this error was that the day was hectic in the clinic, and the head nurse requested me to administer the medication to the patient. Without thinking twice or double-checking the patient’s chart, I went ahead and administered the medicine. Later, the head nurse realized this mistake, called the patient, and recorded an incident report.

Even though the medication error did not severely affect the patient, it does not imply that such mistakes should be ignored. As nurses, we work with medication daily, and in some cases, others have similar spelling. Hence, selecting the wrong medication may have harmful effects on the patient. As a result, a registered nurse must identify the patient’s medication and ensure they administer the medication appropriately. Doing extensive research on this topic will assist in identifying measures for preventing future occurrences of medication errors.




Identifying Academic Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

            The first database I used was the Capella Library search tool, Summon, to obtain reliable sources. Other databases that I utilized and found beneficial for this paper’s research through Summon were NCBI, EBSCOhost, and finally, ProQuest. Prescription mistakes and ways to prevent prescription errors were among the terms I used. The search result brought multiple relevant articles. The other principle used was the selection of peer-reviewed and scholarly articles.

The Assessment of Credibility and Relevance if Information Sources

            For this research, I narrowed down timelines when the articles were written. The articles published no more than six years ago were used to ensure the credibility of the information. Also, to guarantee the credibility of the sources, I used only peer-reviews and scholarly articles. Equally, I used filters to ensure the articles were full texts to review the whole work. Lastly, I skimmed through different articles to seek those relevant to the topic of discussion. The selected articles discuss preventing medication errors and some of the best practices for avoiding medication errors.

Annotated Bibliography

(Goedecke et al., 2016) begins with the definition of different classifications of medication errors. There are various forms of medication errors which range from those that may harm the patient to those that cannot cause harm to the patient. Moreover, (Goedecke et al., 2016) stress the importance of documenting medication errors in case they occur. When recorded, medication errors are stored in the national system. The main objective of documenting medication errors is to ensure that other people learn from such mistakes and prevent their future occurrence. The authors address the different forms of medication errors in different practices. For instance, it discusses the standard medication error with geriatric patients and discusses common mistakes that affect pediatric patients (Goedecke et al., 2016). On the matter, it provides practical measures to prevent these medication errors. Conclusively, the article offers a chance for documented medication errors to find practical solutions to avoid future occurrences of similar mistakes. The main reason why (Goedecke et al., 2016) was selected is that it provides information on different types of medication errors and how to prevent their occurrence.

(Kavanagh, 2017) discusses the importance of medication management in the scope of nursing practice. Correspondingly, it covers the types of medication errors within the different phases of the medication delivery process. It also explains that some of the factors contributing to medication errors include; personal knowledge of medicines, incorrect reading of prescriptions, not reporting and recording medication errors, numerical abilities, and multiple drug regimens. Furthermore, (Kavanagh, 2017) offers examples of minimizing medication errors and provides positive sides that come about when medication errors are reported. Catching up with training and enhancing interaction among nurses and the client are two examples of avoiding prescription mistakes. The article was selected for this research because it clearly articulates everything positive and negative regarding medication administration and the consequences of reporting medication errors (Kavanagh, 2017). 

Some pharmaceutical mistakes occur when the medicine is given to a client who is understood to be allergic to such a drug, according to the writer of the report. (Mortell, 2019) further expounds on the six rights to medication administration that all nurses should follow. (Mortell, 2019) also emphasizes that known patient allergies should be part of the medication administration rights.

Similarly, in the nursing industry, the paper emphasizes ethics as well as safety. It provides a case study of the adverse effects which may occur if a patient is administered a drug they are allergic to. The patient administered the medication suffered an anaphylactic shock and eventually died due to medication errors. (Mortell, 2019) concludes that healthcare providers ought to give their patients the highest form of care. Becoming keen on known allergies may help avoid medication errors and save the patient’s life. The article was chosen, and this is because it gives insight on allergies and why they need to be considered in the medication administration process (Mortell, 2019). If correctly identified, medication errors and deaths may be avoided in hospitals.

 (Salhotra, & Tyagi, 2019) recognizes that despite the contemporary advancements in healthcare, medication errors still occur from time to time. (Salhotra, & Tyagi, 2019) explain that one of the causes of medication errors is ineffective communication. In some cases, nurses misinterpret what the physician says or writes down on a script. Furthermore, prescription mistakes can be caused by sound-alike or look-alike medications. As a result, (Salhotra & Tyagi, 2019) recommend different storage and proper handling of such drugs to help reduce the risk of medication errors. (Salhotra, & Tyagi, 2019) concluded that there are different ways of minimizing the risk of medication errors. Still, the main challenge occurs in implementing new measures of dealing with medication errors. I decided to use this article for my research project because it gives solid reasons why medication errors occur and provide effective solutions to minimize the risks of medication errors (Salhotra & Tyagi, 2019).

Learnings from the Research

            From the research undertaken, I have learned that medication errors may occur in multiple ways. Furthermore, I also understood that proper reporting and documentation are necessary to prevent future medication errors. It was also evident from the articles that there are various ways of preventing medication errors and ensuring patient safety. Also, allergies, poor communication, and lack of documentation are some of the factors that contribute to medication errors. Finally, this annotated bibliography shall assist me in the following assessment since I have all the necessary resources to write a detailed scholarly paper.



Billstein-Leber, M., Carrillo, C. J. D., Cassano, A. T., Moline, K., & Robertson, J. J. (2018). ASHP guidelines on preventing medication errors in hospitals. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy75(19), 1493-1517. /wp-content/uploads/2020/04/ajhp-errori-di-terapia.pdf”> 

Goedecke, T., Ord, K., Newbould, V., Brosch, S., & Arlett, P. (2016). Medication errors: New EU good practice guide on risk minimization and error prevention: An international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. Drug Safety, 39(6), 491-500. :

Kavanagh, C. (2017). Medication governance: preventing errors and promoting patient safety. British Journal of Nursing, 26(3), 159-165.

Mortell, M. (2019). Should known allergy status be included as a medication administration “right”? British Journal of Nursing, 28(20), 1292–1298.

Salhotra, R., & Tyagi, A. (2019). Medication errors: They continue. Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology, 35(1), 1-2. doi:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_88_19 

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