A Research Project on Romanesque

Research Project on Romanesque or Gothic Revival Building (Durham Cathedral)

The research will give identification and Use of Durham Cathedral building in Durham as a Romanesque architecture. The research will also focus on the relationship between Romanesque and Gothic Revival architecture. The research indicates how the development of the new construction techniques of the Durham cathedral building became the turning point of architecture designs and was the first Gothic style. The research points out that the Romanesque design uses large columns and heavy piers to support the ceilings and high vaults of the building. The research will show how the Durham church building exhibits both character traits of Gothic and Romanesque architectural designs. It will also show how Understanding the historical implications of Durham will change reactions towards Romanesque and Gothic settings. 

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In the city of Durham, there lies a Durham cathedral which is a religious building. It represents Romanesque architecture. The same building is a pioneer in Gothic architecture. The Durham building gives a complete aerial view of Durham city as it stands at 200 feet high. On a hill above the Wear River is a strategic position occupied by the famous Durham Cathedral, the central Tower. The Cathedral was built with stones which replaced the simple structure, which was built of timber. It is known as the white church. Being the home of relics of St Cuthbert, the new structure became the site of pilgrimage. It became the attraction site for tourists from all over the world. On account of pilgrims, the Durham church made it easy for the towns surrounding the Cathedral to grow due to increased money from pilgrim site visits. 

The Durham Cathedral served as an inspiration for Gothic architecture even though it was considered to be an England Romanesque architecture. It has both characteristics of both Gothic and Romanesque architecture. Durham church building lacks the structural sophistication rib vault, which is a common trait in Romanesque churches. Round arches with blunt towers differentiate Durham Romanesque buildings from Gothic, which have sharply pointed towers. During construction, ribs are used as structural arches to give support to the building. For building decoration, vault ribs and forced masons were used. Centering of  the entire vaults, there was Use of wooden materials during construction. The presence of rhythmic ornamental arches, thick walls, and lack of sculpture characterize the Romanesque Durham building. The Use of dressed stones and vaults distinguishes the First Romanesque from the Gothic style.

Before the Use of pointed arches in the Durham building, the buildings used semicircular arches. The creation of higher structures was by pointed arches, which led away to adoption by Gothic architecture. In Durham Cathedral, the windows and ornaments on the face sides were constructed using the semicircular arch. Doorways were made from concentric arches series from more minor to more significant as approaching the main doors. Essential windows and ornaments on facades led to the introduction of the pointed arch. The world’s first structural pointed arch is found in Durham Cathedral, which later became widely used in Gothic architecture. 

Durham Cathedral was designed to use Buttresses. They are lateral reinforcements that are projected from the wall. They are built to support the weight of roofs vaults. They are considered flying buttresses when they are separated from the main wall. The buttresses are considered to be used for taller constructions like The Durham building.  When you look at the building, these structures are used to open up the wall spaces. Flying and traditional buttresses were used to build Durham Cathedral. The central vaults for this cathedral building were used as flying buttresses.

Architectural plans for Cathedral used Latin cross Layout and symmetry design. The more extended descending arm used in the building was the Latin cross. Commonly Romanesque architecture used Latin cross design. During the construction and architectural design of Durham Cathedral, symmetry was an essential element. There was a clearly defined axis in the Durham building going around the building axis, and it revolved around the axis. The Durham Cathedral floor plan appreciated the perfect Use of symmetry and Latin layout. There is a consideration on Use of ribbed vaults is in Durham cathedral as Romanesque architecture. Following Benedictine Order, the Durham Cathedral was built as a monastic cathedral for a community of monks. The bishop had a unique role in designing the Durham building even though the monastic buildings were constructed for the monks. 

There are so many reasons the Durham Cathedral has become the main focus in United States architecture. It was built in a secure site enclosed with a River Wear loop, and the open end was guarded by a castle that belonged to Durham bishops. The building scaling provides a stunning contrast to modern architecture, which is more modest before Norman Conquest in England. Durham Cathedral serves as a landmark in terms of architectural development. It used soffit rolls, wall arcades, and chevron ornament, enriching the building’s visual terms.

The emphatic alternating system is in Use to design the main elevations of Durham. The broad transverse of Durham was supported by engaged shafts, which were substantial compound piers that rose to the springing point of the vaults. The Systems are believed to be unique in Durham’s structure. Norman Abbey architect had used similar arrangements. His architectural designs lacked monumentality due to the thin walling, unlike Durham, which has thick walls. Durham building used unique emphatic alterations that are not commonly found in England. The more subtle variations in pier design formed early elements in Gothic buildings. 

The Durham Cathedral was designed with galleries. Above the aisles, there was a broad space. The outer walls were lit by small windows, which looked so beautiful. During the 11th century, many churches in England embraced the standard of the gallery for furnishing. The Use of the gallery in many churches wasn’t clear since some people believed its Use was to light the alters while others said it was used by church choir during feast days and for antiphonal singing. In Durham Building, the galleries were more valued mark status of festivals and crowded occasions.

The experience of being inside Durham Cathedral is so great that it contains fabulous round window-stained glass that catches every visitor’s eyes upon arrival. The length of the Cathedral is so impressive and attractive. The round windows resemble Christ, surrounded by twenty-four elders as well as the apostles. Inside the Cathedral, bats live on the wooden roof of the cloister. Seeing critters is a pleasant experience when you visit Durham. There is an annual invasion of pipistrelle bats which can include up to fifty bats at once. The intricate design, height of the building, and extraordinary arching roof are so attractive

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